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In centerless grinding, it is difficult to optimize the grinding conditions for minimizing the workpiece roundness error because of the high number of process parameters such as center height angle, blade angle, and stock removal rate. We had previously proposed a function for evaluating grinding conditions, i.e., the waviness decrease rate, in order to automatically select the optimum process parameters. In order to build a closed-loop control system for the process parameters, however, it is necessary to find a practical way to determine the waviness decrease rate. In this paper, the relationship between the waviness decrease rate and the dynamic components of the grinding force was investigated analytically. It was found that the frequency characteristics of the waviness decrease rate show a similar tendency to those of the grinding force. A grinding force measurement system was built and experiments for measuring the frequency characteristics of the grinding force were carried out. As a result, it was confirmed that the waviness decrease rate can be determined by measuring the frequency characteristics of the grinding force.