Universality and Selectivity in Income Support: A Comparative Study in Social Citizenship

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Abstract
This paper is concerned with social citizenship as the basis of rightful entitlement to the benefits of the welfare state, and with differences in the way in which it is expressed in the income support systems of different countries. Citizenship is variously associated with equality of status, universality in the distribution of benefits and entitlement to a social minimum. The paper compares outcomes measures with respect to citizenship in the old age pension systems of six countries: Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Norway and Sweden, with respect to inclusiveness, selectivity, income composition and the remediation of poverty.
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Shaver, Sheila
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1995
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Working Paper
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