metadata only access
This paper investigates the relationship between instructional effectiveness of animated vs. static diagrams and levels of learner expertise in the task domain of transforming graphs of simple linear and quadratic functions. It was demonstrated on many occasions that instructional formats that are effective for low-knowledge learners could be ineffective, or even deleterious, for high-knowledge learners, and vice versa (the expertise reversal effect). The levels of learner (university students) expertise in this study were measured using an online rapid diagnostic method, a rapid verification technique, that involves presenting learners with a series of possible solution steps reflecting various stages of the solution procedure and asking them to rapidly verify the suggested steps. The results indicated a significant interaction between levels of learner expertise and instructional formats. Novice learners benefited more from static diagrams than from animated diagrams, while more knowledgeable learners benefited more from animated rather than static diagrams. A theoretical explanation of the effect is suggested within the framework of cognitive load theory. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.