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Objective: To examine the barriers and incentives to HIV treatment uptake among Aboriginal people in Western Australia. Methods: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted between February and September 2003 with 20 Aboriginal people who were HIV-positive; almost half the total number of Aboriginal people known to be living with HIV in Western Australia at that time. Results: Despite having access to treatments in both urban and rural areas, only 11 of the 20 participants were on antiretroviral treatment at the time of interview. Four of the women had been prescribed treatment during pregnancy only. The main barriers to treatment uptake were fear of disclosure and discrimination, heavy alcohol consumption and poverty. The incentives were pregnancy and access to services whose approach can be described as broad-based and holistic, i.e. supporting people in the context of their everyday lives by providing psychosocial and welfare support as well as healthcare.