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This article reports the development of a new composite based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and melamine fiber. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to study the effect of a dry bonding system in improving the adhesion between the fiber and the matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites are improved in the presence of the dry bonding system comprising of resorcinol, hexamethylene tetramine (hexamine), and hydrated silica. SEM and atomic force microscopic (AFM) images show that there are distinct changes in the fiber-matrix interphase with the incorporation of the dry bonding system. A strong attachment of the fiber to the matrix is found in the SEM photomicrographs of the tensile fracture surfaces of the composites containing the dry bonding system. AFM section analysis and surface plot show that the improvement in tensile strength and modulus in the presence of the dry bonding system is due to the formation of a well-defined interphase between the fiber and the matrix. The width of the interphase between the fiber and the matrix is increased in the presence of the dry bonding system, which is reflected in the mechanical properties and aging characteristics.