Background and Aims: Recent evidence suggests that there has been a sharp increase in non-drinking among Australian adolescents. This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic patterns of this increase to identify potential causal factors behind this increase. Design: Two waves (2001 and 2010) of cross sectional data from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a large scale population survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify significant changes over time, with interaction terms used to test whether trends varied by respondent characteristics. Setting: Australia Participants: Respondents aged 14-17 years old (n=1477 in 2001 and 1075 in 2010) Measurements: The key outcome measure was 12 month abstention from alcohol. Socio-demographic variables including sex, age, income, socio-economic status, state and rurality were examined. Findings: Rates of abstention increased overall from 32.9% (95% CI: 30.0%-35.7%) to 50.2% (95% CI: 46.7%-53.6%) (p<0.01). Abstention increased significantly across all population sub-groups examined. Conclusions: A broad change in drinking behaviour has occurred among Australian adolescents in the last decade, with rates of abstention among 14-17 year olds increasing markedly. Increases in abstention have occurred consistently across a wide range of population sub-groups defined by demographic, socio-economic and regional factors.