The report presents an overview of the workers' compensation scene, identifying a diversity of legislative and administrative arrangements currently existing in Australia. As the first report in this research programme, it takes the form of a discussion monograph, aiming to identify issues and problematic areas in the operation of the workers' compensation system (or systems) rather than attempting to arrive at definitive findings and conclusions. These, it is hoped, will be forthcoming in the future reports. The report has seven chapters. Beginning with the introduction of the subject of workers' compensation and defining the area in the wider context of compensation and income security, it then traces the evolution of the system since the last century to the present day. This is followed by observations on the current state of statistical data and the diversity of legislative and administrative arrangements currently in existence in Australia. Recent changes in some States and proposed changes in others are noted and discussed. One chapter examines specific issues of workers' compensation related to non-English speaking immigrants, and another chapter looks at the issues of occupational health and safety. The final chapter attempts to draw some of the implications of workers' compensation provisions, for the persons who suffer a work-related injury and for the social security system.