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The book covers some of the key research developments in autism and brings together the current state of evidence on the neurobiologic understanding of this intriguing disorder. The pathogenetic mechanisms are explored by contributors from diverse perspectives including genetics, neuroimaging, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuroimmunology, neuroendocrinology, functional organization of the brain and clinical applications from the role of diet to vaccines. It is hoped that understanding these interconnected neurobiological systems, the programming of which is genetically modulated during neurodevelopment and mediated through a range of neuropeptides and interacting neurotransmitter systems, would no doubt assist in developing interventions that accommodate the way the brains of individuals with autism function. In keeping with the multimodal and diverse origins of the disorder, a wide range of topics is covered and these include genetic underpinnings and environmental modulation leading to epigenetic changes in the aetiology; neural substrates, potential biomarkers and endophenotypes that underlie clinical characteristics; as well as neurochemical pathways and pathophysiological mechanisms that pave the way for therapeutic interventions.