Electrolyte optimization and electrode material evaluation for the vanadium redox battery

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Copyright: Kazacos, Michael
In this project the preparation of the electrolyte for the all vanadium redox flow battery was investigated using both chemical and electrolytic reduction of ^O,- powder. Oxalic acid and SO^ reduction were found to be unsuitable as only the V(IV) state could be produced directly. With suspended powder hydrolysis, however, vanadium sulphate of any oxidation state, in this case 50% V(IV) plus 50% V(III) in sulphuric acid can readily be prepared from V^O^ powder, thus allowing a significant reduction in the cost of the vanadium battery electrolyte. Results from conductivity and electrolyte stability tests at elevated temperature have led to modification of the electrolyte composition for the vanadium redox cell, from the 2 M V plus 2 M H^SO^, originally employed, to the use of 3 M H^SO^, much higher energy efficiencies and greater electrolyte stability was demonstrated with the 3 M H^SO^ supporting electrolyte. Spectroscopy and electrolyte conductivity have been demonstrated as suitable techniques for state-of-charge monitoring. A number of electrode materials were also evaluated and a Toray graphite bonded to a carbon plastic electrode was selected for further prototype development. Energy efficiencies of between 83 and 86% were obtained for a current density of 30 mA/cm for a temperature range 5 to 45'C, and between 0 and 100% state-of-charge. A wide range of construction materials was tested for long term stability in the vanadium redox electrolyte.
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Kazacos, Michael
kyllas-Kazacos, Maria S
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