In Australia, case management has become a feature of labour market programs designed to assist unemployed people in their search for appropriate forms of paid work. Although application of case management in this area has yet to be fully evaluated, the approach reflects a more general emphasis on tailoring services more closely towards the needs of those who use them. Against this background, in May 1996 the New Zealand Department of Labour commissioned the Social Policy Research Centre to carry out a literature review examining the concept of case management and its application to labour market programs. This report is based on that literature review. It presents outlines of initiatives developed and practised in a number of different countries, which include individually tailored elements for job seekers. The countries covered by the review, in addition to Australia and New Zealand, include Canada and the United States, as well as several European nations.