The two types of marine hydrometer commonly used by naval architects and surveyors measure two distinct, but related, properties. The properties have different units and are used for different purposes. Some users may not be aware of the two types of hydrometer, the properties measured, or the errors which can significantly affect the end result. The relationships between the measured properties are discussed, together with the specific applications of the two types of hydrometer. The conversion of measurements made on one type of hydrometer to the other type is given, with examples of the conversions. Application of the principles presented here will prevent confusion and ensure the use, rather than abuse, of the two types of marine hydrometer.