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Life has evolved an extraordinary capacity to deal with the most extreme physical and chemical conditions. Extremophilic (extreme-loving) organisms have been found in the superheated waters of deep ocean vents or the hypersaline and cold lakes of Antarctica and indeed often require the extreme conditions of their habitat to survive and thrive. The cellular machinery of extremophiles has developed unique adaptation strategies to effectively function in their given environment. Much scientific attention has focussed on the adaptation of proteins as they have both structural and catalytic functions and hence play key roles in all cellular processes. Moreover their ability to perform in or withstand extreme physical and chemical conditions has made extremophilic proteins attractive bio-catalysts for a range of industrial and biotechnological applications.