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The paper describes a study on applying dynamic online evaluation of efficiency of learner performance for individualizing e-learning. The suggested adaptive methodology for adjusting e-learning as learners gain knowledge is based on combining rapid online measures of levels of expertise with measures of mental load involved in task performance. The rapid online assessment of expertise is based on evaluating an immediate content of memory as learners approach a task (using a rapid verification technique). Levels of mental load are measured using a subjective rating scale. The approach is applied in the domain of kinematics for tailoring instructions to levels of learner expertise in an adaptive tutor. The described efficiency-based approach will contribute to the design of adaptive environments that require optimal levels of learner mental effort and improve pedagogical quality of e-learning technologies.