Anthracyclines used in the treatment of cancer: their harmful effects on the Reno-cardiovascular connection

dc.contributor.advisor Avolio, Alberto P en_US
dc.contributor.advisor Gabrielson, Kathleen L en_US Bedja, Djahida en_US 2022-03-21T16:47:23Z 2022-03-21T16:47:23Z 2008 en_US
dc.description.abstract Background: The molecular and cellular mechanisms corresponding to the compensatory and maladaptive hypertrophy and remodeling of the left ventricle with chronic doxorubicin (DOX) treatment are currently unclear. Non-invasive methods of determining these changes are still deficient. To investigate these changes, 8 groups of rats in 4 different studies including a control saline group of the same age, gender and strain were evaluated for cardiac morphology and function including: (1) DOX dose response using a cumulative dose of 7.5mg/kg, and 15mg/kg in 8-10 week old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, (2) strain differences were investigated in response to a cumulative dose of 15mg/kg in 8-10 week old female Fisher (F344) rats compared to the SD rats treated with same dose, (3) the role of gender and aging were studied in response to DOX at a cumulative dose of 3mg/kg in male and female neonates, and (4) combined losartan and a cumulative dose of 15mg/kg of DOX in 8-10 week old female SD rats compared to controls of saline and 15mg/kg treated SD rats. Method: Onset of cardiac toxicity was assessed by echocardiography and the rat model of heart failure was developed when the fractional shortening declined ≤ 40%. The mean arterial pressure and single-photon-emission computer tomography scanning and Tc-99m-HYNIC-Annexin V were performed at week 10 to analyze blood pressure and quantify apoptosis, respectively. All rats were euthanized at week 10 except for the neonates and two of the 7.5mg/kg-treated SD rats that were left alive for study of long -term cardiac side effects. The heart and kidney tissues were harvested for protein isolation and histopathological studies. Blood samples were collected for hematological and lipid profile analysis in all the rats. Results: A dose- and time-dependent increase in LVmass coincided with a parallel increase in MAP, kidney damage, expression of myocardial erbB2, heat shock protein 90 Akt, mTOR, GSK-3β, TGF-β, pSMAD2, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in SD rats treated with 7.5mg/kg and 15mg/kg of DOX at week 10. The 7.5 kg/kg treatment showed adaptive hypertrophy whereas the 15mg/kg treatment group showed maladaptive hypertrophy. However decompensation was apparent by week 14 in other rats treated with 7.5mg/kg. LVmass, FS, MAP, kidney damage, red blood cells and blood lipid levels were not significantly altered in the F344 rats compared to the 15 mg/kg-treated SD rats. Losartan supplementation reduced the left ventricular hypertrophy, improved myocardial contractility, and reduced TGF-β expression compared to the DOX-treated SD rats. The 3mg/kg of DOX in neonates induced cardiac toxicity and deaths in about 60% of males 50 weeks after treatment; the females instead developed mammary tumors. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that age, gender, and strain differences are risks factors for doxorubicin-induced harmful reno-cardiovascular toxicity. The inhibition of TGF-β expression by losartan can be used in prevention of chronic doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity without interfering with its anti-tumor activities. en_US
dc.language English
dc.language.iso EN en_US
dc.publisher UNSW, Sydney en_US
dc.rights CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 en_US
dc.rights.uri en_US
dc.subject.other Tc-99m-HYNIC-Annexin V en_US
dc.subject.other Doxorubicin en_US
dc.subject.other Echocardiography en_US
dc.title Anthracyclines used in the treatment of cancer: their harmful effects on the Reno-cardiovascular connection en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dcterms.accessRights open access
dcterms.rightsHolder Bedja, Djahida
dspace.entity.type Publication en_US
unsw.relation.faculty Engineering
unsw.relation.originalPublicationAffiliation Bedja, Djahida, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UNSW en_US
unsw.relation.originalPublicationAffiliation Avolio, Alberto P , Faculty of Engineering, UNSW en_US
unsw.relation.originalPublicationAffiliation Gabrielson, Kathleen L, Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University en_US School of Biomedical Engineering *
unsw.thesis.degreetype Masters Thesis en_US
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