This report contains the five Invited Plenary Session papers presented to the Second National Social Policy Conference held at the University of New South Wales on 3-5 July 1991. The theme of the Conference, Social Policy in Australia: Options for the 1990s forms the title of the report. The Social Policy Research Centre is also publishing two volumes of selected contributed papers in the SPRC Reports and Proceedings series as well as editing a Special Issue of The Australian Quarterly (No. 3, 1991) containing a further selection of contributed papers. This volume is concerned with a range of issues relating to the social security system, including income distribution, and with changes in this distribution and in the need for, and ways of, providing income support, brought about by changes in demography and in government policy.