In this paper I compare the expressive power of several models of concurrency based on their ability to represent causal dependence. To this end, I translate these models, in behaviour preserving ways, into the model of higher dimensional automata (HDA), which is the most expressive model under investigation. In particular, I propose four different translations of Petri nets, corresponding to the four different computational interpretations of nets found in the literature. I also extend various equivalence relations for concurrent systems to HDA. These include the history preserving bisimulation, which is the coarsest equivalence that fully respects branching time, causality and their interplay, as well as the ST-bisimulation, a branching time respecting equivalence that takes causality into account to the extent that it is expressible by actions overlapping in time. Through their embeddings in HDA, it is now well-defined whether members of different models of concurrency are equivalent. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.