Arts Design & Architecture

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 88
  • (2023) Liu, Ting
    Thesis
    With the integration of technology in language education, language learners can get access to plenty of online resources in the learning process while language teachers develop technology-enhanced pedagogical activities to support the learners’ learning. Yet little research has explored the challenges language teachers experienced and their strategic responses in designing and implementing technology-enhanced pedagogical tasks. The study focuses on the integration of technology in language education by language teachers in the context of Chinese higher education. Seeing these language teachers as pedagogical designers and implementers, the study explores how language teachers design and implement technology-enhanced pedagogical tasks in teaching. Informed by recent research on technology in language education, and pedagogical design in technology-enhanced language education, this study investigates language teachers’ professional development (e.g., experience), in designing and challenges they experience in implementing technology-enhanced tasks and how they respond to these challenges. The study involves 9 participants, whose universities implemented initiatives to encourage foreign language teachers to use technology to promote students’ learning. Multiple data (e.g. narratives and artefacts) were collected and made through interviews (e.g., informal conversations and semi-structured interviews), and lesson observation methods during the data collecting process. The qualitative data were analysed thematically through transcribing, archiving and coding using NVivo software to yield insights into the participants’ experiences with regard to the design and implementation of technology-enhanced pedagogical tasks. The study found that language teachers experienced challenges related to the interrelationships between teachers and students, colleagues, family, university, and resources (e.g., technology) due to inexperience and low sense of self-efficacy in pedagogical design in technology-enhanced language education. They responded to those challenges as they received support from the university, educational policy, colleagues, students, and resources. They had positive attitudes and pedagogical beliefs in designing and implementing pedagogical tasks in blended and online education. Overall, the findings were consistent with previous studies, while leading to a broader and deeper understanding of the ecological systems theory by analysing contextual environments of language teachers in Chinese universities. Implications for future research and suggestions to improve and enhance language teachers’ professional development are provided in order to promote pedagogical design and implementation in technology-enhanced language education among Chinese foreign language teachers.

  • (2023) Jahja, Rachel
    Thesis
    Aiming to explore the role of critical self-reflection in architectural education and practice, this qualitative research study investigates the experience of a sample of ten architects in becoming architects and in designing, or significantly modifying, their own homes. Five male and five female architects, of different ages and backgrounds, were invited to reflect on a) becoming architects and b) designing or significantly modifying their own homes, based on two key questions: a) ‘From as far back as you remember until now, what were the key influences on you becoming an architect?’ b) ‘What were the key influences on designing your home?’ The collected and recorded data was analysed using Clark Moustakas’ phenomenological approach. Fifteen recurring themes were apparent in the collected data related to becoming an architect and 24 themes were apparent in the data related to designing/modifying own homes, with multiple similar thematic findings across the two categories. Core findings were apparent in the descriptive synthesised statements from this study, regarding shared essences and meanings related to a) what the experience of becoming an architect is like for architects and b) what it is like for them to design/modify their own homes. This study contributes to architectural education, teaching and practice through providing pedagogical tools for students, teachers and practitioners to reflect on their own influential life experiences and individual ways of being and designing. One of the contributions that has resulted from this study is the ‘Revealing the Inner Designer’ survey, an undergraduate survey for students in the first semester of their first year of study, which includes 40 probing open-ended critical self-reflection questions informed by the findings from the investigation into the experiences of architects in becoming architects. These are grouped into a series of categories relating to different dimensions of self-identity that may inform a greater understanding of self in students as well as a greater understanding of who they might be as designers in the future. Another contribution to the field of architectural education made by this study is the ‘Design Philosophy and Approach’ an architectural practice-based postgraduate and practice questionnaire, including 24 open-ended questions based on the thematic findings from the investigation into the experiences of architects in designing or significantly modifying their own homes. The questionnaire could be applicable to postgraduate researchers, architects or clients and may be used to assist conversation or self-reflection regarding qualities and meanings specific to an architect’s individual design philosophy and approach to design. This study argues for a need for greater awareness of the ways in which architects may reveal themselves through reflections on their own life stories in becoming architects as well as through spatial design processes.

  • (2023) Nikolic, Nemanja
    Thesis
    Understanding urban office markets remains a challenge, further complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the changing nature of work. Property developers and planning professionals are expected to face difficulties in estimating the future need for office space, across various consumer segments. Closely linked to economic cycles and growth, demand for office spaces is fundamentally derived from the economic activities that they facilitate. Yet, a lack of data has limited understanding of how the demands of office users shape market structure and contribute to segmentation. Tenant preferences, occupier mobility, functional specialisation and agglomerations are mentioned in the introductory sections of many studies, as potential explanations, yet in-depth analysis is largely absent. Other issues related to the adequacy of neoclassical economic frameworks for conceptualising office (property) markets also remain unresolved, with several academic urban economists calling for a more multi-disciplinary approach (Clapham, Clark & Gibb, 2012). This thesis explores the topic of office market segmentation at the intra-urban level, from a perspective of office users and market structure. As markets are multi-faceted phenomena, a composite view of urban morphology was adopted in conjunction with more traditional economic measures of property market segmentation such as migration flows. Using the metropolitan area of Greater Sydney between 2001-2021 as the case study, a series of quantitative exploratory techniques were utilised to understand the topic holistically and from the bottom-up. The focus was on the real-world characteristics of office users, rather than assumptions of perfect competition. The results showed that all 18 office user agglomerations, identified in Greater Sydney, had sufficient self-containment values (above 25%) to be identified as either submarket or core market areas. However, statistically, the migration flows between them were better explained with spatial than with sectoral similarity measures – diminishing the apparent significance of agglomeration economies in explaining market segmentation. Office users tend to stay in their existing location and near their workforce, with most intra-market moves relating to up- or down-grading, particularly to the Sydney CBD. Overall, office submarket areas had a similar employment compositions. It can be concluded that the characteristics of office users lead to, or at least reflect, a locally segmented and tiered intra-urban market structure. However, there is little evidence that the operational requirements associated with different types of office activity – e.g., knowledge intensive or administrative functions – are the primary determinants of market structure. Based on the research findings, it is more likely that the market structure reflects the limited search patterns and constrained purchasing powers of office users. This provides a counterview to location theory, which revolves around knowledge spillovers and functional specialisation. Market trends observed during the COVID-19 pandemic confirm such conclusions. The successful transition to working-from-home, showed that being physically separated from other similar firms (i.e., without agglomeration economies) was not only possible but, on average, was more productive. Two other pandemic trends, decreased employees willingness-to-travel and ‘flight to quality’ by firms, reinforced key thesis findings: office users tend to stay in their existing location and near their workforce and most intra-market moves are for up- or down-grading. These trends seem likely to continue. Looking forward, gravity models, which match these trends by estimating migration flows as a function of locational attractiveness and distance decay, may provide a better platform for modelling the structure and dynamics of office markets than neoclassical economics.

  • (2023) Stirling, Robert
    Thesis
    In Australia, there is no standardised approach to measuring performance of alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services. Non-government organisations (NGOs) that provide AOD treatment in Australia manage contracts from multiple funding sources, with performance measures varying between funders. They have reported a high reporting burden and inconsistent expectations from different funders to demonstrate accountability. The primary aim of this thesis was to establish a list of performance measures that are acceptable to service users, treatment providers, and funders; explore approaches to improve implementation of performance measures; and make recommendations to funders of non-government AOD treatment. The research approach involved three phases: 1) an assessment by three independent raters of existing measures used in contracts against best practice; 2) focus groups with service users, treatment providers, and funders (n=10 focus groups) to identify the most important performance measures among diverse stakeholders and explore the challenges associated with implementation; 3) a Delphi process with a purposeful sample of service users, treatment providers, and funders to prioritise a core set of performance measures. Phase One found over 500 unique measures used in contracts for AOD treatment services, with most not adhering to best practice. Further, the majority were output and process measures. In Phase Two, focus groups identified that access, outcome, and experience measures were the most important measurement types across all stakeholder groups, with structural measures also important to service users. In Phase Three, 17 performance measures reached consensus. In contrast to Phase One, the final set were mostly outcome, access, and structural measures (n= 11/17) with only one measure each for output and process. Further, key findings from the focus groups highlighted that identification of measures is only part of a robust performance measurement system. Support systems for collecting, analysing, interpreting, and reporting performance data are also needed. At the policy-level, implementation of the final set of measures can improve accountability of public funds, and support the collection of standardised performance-related data to inform funding decisions and treatment planning. At the practice-level, the measures have the potential to reduce reporting burden, improve organisational efficiency, and inform quality improvement initiatives.

  • (2023) Park, Eun Kyong
    Thesis
    This study draws on family language policy (FLP) research to increase the understanding of Korean immigrant families living in Sydney and their values concerning bilingualism. The study explores the relationships between Korean immigrant parents’ beliefs about bilingualism, family literacy practices, and their perceptions of their children’s identity, using Spolsky’s (2004) re-envisioned three-component model. The focus of this research is to examine how parents’ ideological beliefs and experiences are related to managing their practices and environment at home, with reference to the notion of Hyo and other traditional Korean cultural values. This work is based on my previous research that explored Korean immigrant mothers’ beliefs and decision-making in support of their children’s bilingualism. This project includes the perspectives of both parents within the participating families, as key contributors to the bilingual development of their children. A qualitative approach was adopted to explore the beliefs and practices of twelve immigrant mothers and fathers living in a Korean-Australian community whose child/children attend a community Korean language program. The main data included focus group interviews with mothers and self-report responses of fathers. Thematic analysis and coding revealed participants’ expectations about bilingualism. The findings highlight their ideologies and management are bounded by Hyo and specific traditional and modern Korean values. The results illuminate the similar and different ways the mothers and the fathers provide FLPs for their children. Several linguistic implications emerge, for parents of other communities, in how to support young bilingual children at the family level. This research also offers a theoretical contribution to the field of FLP and bilingualism, by envisioning the language policy model and taking due account of layered sociocultural factors. Further, these provide teaching and programming implications for educators and language policy makers, to transform the “untapped resource of community bilingualism” for the national benefit, through the partnership between home and school community (Lo Bianco, 2009b, p. 4).

  • (2023) Tualima, Saeumalo Hai-Yuean
    Thesis
    This thesis uses a Talanoa Research Methodology (TRM) approach to explore the concepts of traditional knowledge, knowledge, custom and customary law in Samoa. TRM uses the principles of fa’asamoa to guide and conduct interviews where participants are collaborators, co-developing the research agenda. Open-ended questions focused on centring participant perspectives to reflect their authentic voices, understand their life experience and recommendations for future directions for reform. Interviews were conducted with Samoan government officers, cultural practitioners, and village individuals across 2019 to 2021. Participants were asked to identify traditional knowledge or knowledge, intellectual property, custom and customary law from their perspective, allowing the terms and examples to demonstrate connections between where knowledge is situated, and how life is lived and practiced, and its day-to-day regulation. A TRM approach was chosen to help make more visible how knowledge is regulated in a pluralist post-colonial legal order. In Samoa, customary law is not inferior or superior to the legislative framework of the state. Customary law plays a crucial role in village governance and regulates how knowledge operates in society. This is not well understood in the international literature about TK and intellectual property and this creates problems in implementing treaty conventions such as the World Trade Organization Agreement on Trade-Related Rights of Intellectual Property Rights 1994 (TRIPs), Convention of Biological Diversity 1992 (CBD), Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from the Utilization to the Convention of Biological Diversity 2010 (Nagoya Protocol), and the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage 2003 (Convention on ICH). Participants reflected on their experiences with current regulatory frameworks, including the role of the village fono. Discussion includes reflections on the value and limitations of international legal frameworks and externally funded development initiatives. Recommendations are canvassed for improvement of current regulatory frameworks and alternative mechanisms that could provide practical avenues for the future development for the protection of knowledge or traditional knowledge in Samoa. Recommendations also have potential relevance for other Pacific Islands. This research has wider relevance beyond the Pacific, providing critical insights into the significance of international discussions about traditional knowledge, access and benefit sharing, and other attempts to decolonise intellectual property. Understanding the value of research informed by TRM is particularly relevant to outside researchers, consultants and international agencies who work in the Pacific and are interested in progressing TK and intellectual property reform agendas in ways that benefit and support the local community.

  • (2023) Robinson, Luke
    Thesis
    Feminist and queer film theorists have developed rich accounts of how gothic woman films test the limits of visibility. The inability to fully determine what is seen and unseen in these films is critical for how we understand and view them. While the facial close-up is a privileged technique for expressing a crisis of vision in gothic woman’s films, little has been said about how women in these close-ups can have visions of themselves in absentia. Even less has been said about how these visions can cause the woman’s face to apparently vanish before the film viewer’s eyes. My thesis addresses this imbalance by identifying a recurrent dramatic moment in female gothics where women are confronted by their own erasure and where their face, for the film viewer, appears to be disappear. It conceptualizes these dramatic moments as a particular kind of scene in which distinctions between the seen and the unseen, and between agency and a lack of agency are put in question through and for the female protagonist. I identify four different types of disappearing face in this thesis and each of these different types has implications for how the unseen manifests in, and on, a woman’s face: the invisibly masked face, the fading face, the ghosting face, and the face under erasure. By conceptualizing a new type of scene, and by producing a taxonomy of disappearing faces, my thesis produces a work of film theory. It also brings questions of visibility into new and renewed dialogue with debates on the facial close-up; theories of film sound; theories and philosophies of visual culture, particularly how they pertain to the vanishing point; and, anthropological approaches to disappearance. Finally, and most importantly, my thesis turns our attention to what is not rendered visible in scenes featuring women, and others, who, being in absentia, cannot be seen with one’s naked eyes. To this end, my thesis gets us to think about where a story takes place when something, or someone, on screen cannot be seen.

  • (2023) Sazzad, Hossain
    Thesis
    Prisons are a hotspot for blood-borne virus transmission. To control outbreaks of these infections, it is essential to have an in-depth understanding of risk behaviours of inmates and the impact of existing control measures, and also to apply sensitive methods for detection of new infections occurring within prisons. This thesis describes studies in these three domains to understand the spread of hepatitis C infection in the prisons in New South Wales (NSW). The clinical data and blood samples for this work originated from two prospective studies conducted in the NSW prisons: the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study in prisons (HITS-p) (2005- 2014; n=590) and the Surveillance and Treatment of Prisoners with Hepatitis C (SToP-C) (2015-2019; n=3691). The first study identified a high rate of incident infections in an at-risk cohort and documented outcomes (spontaneous clearance, chronic infection, and re-infection or superinfection), while the second study demonstrated the impact of scale up of direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment in reducing incidence – that is treatment as prevention. The first project utilised qualitative data obtained from audiotaped interviews with inmates in the HITS-p study to understand contexts and concerns regarding violence and HCV transmission in prison. Concerns regarding violence were identified at the individual level during blood contact; triggering factors such as drug debt were identified at the network level; racial influence at the community level; and legislation such as delayed parole for violence impacted at the policy level. For the subsequent projects near-full length HCV genomes for genotypes 1a and 3a cases from both cohorts were sequenced with Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) using previously published protocols. A total of 211 genotype 1a sequences and 282 genotype 3a sequences were generated. Of these, 28 1a and 63 3a sequences were from samples collected within 6 months of the estimated date of infection and are hence referred to as acute infection sequences. Acute infection sequences from samples collected during 2005 – 2015 (the pre-DAA era) and 2016-2019 (the post-DAA era) were used to model the temporal evolution in the size of infected population using previously published Bayesian evolutionary analysis methods. The effective population size modelled with the genotype 3a infection samples, demonstrated a 21% reduction in the size of infected population in 2019 compared to 2014. By contrast, the trend in the genotype 1a samples was static. The SToP-C sequences (from both acute and chronically infected subjects) were used to identify molecularly related infections (clusters), before within-host viral variants were further characterised within these clusters to identify likely direct transmission events (defined as phylogenetic intermingling of within-host variants between two or more subjects). For genotype 1a, there were 131 sequences which formed 51 clusters, and for genotype 3a, 140 sequences formed 61 clusters. Each cluster had 2-4 sequences. Among these, 41 genotype 1a and 39 genotype 3a clusters were analysed for minor variants. Evidence of a direct transmission of a within-host variant was observed in only one cluster. Subjects in 45 (40%) clusters were from the same prison providing preliminary epidemiological support for the transmissions. These studies highlight the high-risk context for HCV transmissions in the prison setting, and the utility of molecular epidemiological tools for surveillance in this closed setting.

  • (2023) Gwynne, Kate
    Thesis
    This creative practice thesis comprises two components, a dissertation titled Co-Creating with the Senses: Towards an Embodiment Grammar for Conceptualising Virtual Reality (VR) Narrative Design and a creative work, The Recluse, a fictional VR script written in the Maria Vargas Immersive Play template, available through Final Draft. The advent of publicly available virtual reality (VR) technologies has led to the emergence of a new genre of storytelling, henceforth referred to as ‘VR narratives’. There has therefore been a need to articulate its defining grammar and to contribute insights born out of artistic experimentation in a scholarly field which until recently was dominated by scientific points of view. Employing a somaesthetics approach outlined by researcher Kristina Höök, the dissertation draws on a qualitative study into 10 VR narrative works in order to propose an embodiment grammar through which the art form may be conceptualised. The study’s findings, a group of eight embodied states organised into a framework, urge for the relenting of authorial control in order to instead frame affective potential, thus echoing a Deleuzian concept of the assemblage. In particular, the framework draws attention to the way that VR’s deeper affective dimensions may be elucidated by framing co-creation through the medium’s distinct sensory possibilities. As interest gathers in a future metaverse, the insights raised by the study are significant, with potential applications in a range of affective design contexts. The Recluse is my original contribution to this emerging art form and a case study through which to interrogate the framework’s findings. A mystery with supernatural elements, the VR script aims to communicate an experience that transports the participant to the world of Alma Cohen, a famous artist turned recluse, where they are invited to experience the strange occurrences in Alma’s life through their own embodied actions. The VR script explores the potential for intimate encounters with virtual characters and the sensory, co-creational and affective possibilities which arise through these dynamics. It highlights, following the framework, the way that more open structuring approaches are required in order to access the medium’s deeper affective possibilities and also the present technological constraints in achieving this.

  • (2023) Dudley, Sheridan
    Thesis
    Large scale education system reform has been taking place for 60 years and governments are expending increasing effort and money on it. The stakes of their involvement are rising, with education success viewed as a proxy for economic competitiveness. However, whole system improvement – where most schools improve - continues to remain elusive. There is general agreement that ministers are integral to public policy development and that one of the most crucial factors in achieving such reform is managing the political context. However very little systematic research exists on the politics of reform, and the problem for politicians is that there are no firm right answers or solutions that they can apply. The aim of this thesis is to provide insights into the role of politicians as policy makers in the development of large-scale education system reform and to distil lessons and identify a practical strategic framework for reform which might be relevant in other contexts or jurisdictions. It builds on the small literature of the politics of education and the writings of ministers, as well as on the extensive literature on large-scale system reform and public policy development, through a qualitative descriptive case study of the development of the Local Schools, Local Decisions (LSLD) reform in New South Wales, Australia, from 2009 to 2012. It takes an historical narrative approach to identifying the elements of the processes through which this reform was developed by the Minister for Education, the political considerations that arose, and how these were addressed. This is explored from the perspectives of those who were insiders to the process - the Minister and others, such as ministerial office staff, public servants and key stakeholders. Their voices are almost entirely absent in the research on policy development and reform design. This study contributes to knowledge by identifying five key cross-cutting themes which give insights into the role of politicians as policy makers in developing large-scale education system reform. It also distils lessons for ministers and their offices for developing such reforms and creates two practical strategic frameworks which might be relevant in other contexts or jurisdictions.