Arts Design & Architecture

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • (2022) Herse, Sarita
    As collaborative agents are implemented within everyday environments and the workforce, user trust in these agents becomes critical to consider. Trust affects user decision making, rendering it an essential component to consider when designing for successful Human-Agent Collaboration (HAC). The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationship between user trust and decision making with the overall aim of providing a trust calibration methodology to achieve the goals and optimise the outcomes of HAC. Recommender systems are used as a testbed for investigation, offering insight on human collaboration with dyadic decision domains. Four studies are conducted and include in-person, online, and simulation experiments. The first study provides evidence of a relationship between user perception of a collaborative agent and trust. Outcomes of the second study demonstrate that initial trust can be used to predict task outcome during HAC, with Signal Detection Theory (SDT) introduced as a method to interpret user decision making in-task. The third study provides evidence to suggest that the implementation of different features within a single agent's interface influences user perception and trust, subsequently impacting outcomes of HAC. Finally, a computational trust calibration methodology harnessing a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) model and SDT is presented and assessed, providing an improved understanding of the mechanisms governing user trust and its relationship with decision making and collaborative task performance during HAC. The contributions from this work address important gaps within the HAC literature. The implications of the proposed methodology and its application to alternative domains are identified and discussed.

  • (2022) Emmett, Deborah
    This practice-based research focuses on traditional textile artisan communities in Kashmir, India, who create handcrafted products with expertise learnt through intergenerational observation and making. The research shows that the rich cultural heritage inherent in these communities has the potential for growth towards a sustainable future through co-design projects. Assumptions in contemporary co-design processes are, however, based on industrialised and technological contexts which need to be reconsidered when working with artisanal communities in India. As members of India’s informal economy, these artisans tend to have low socio-economic status and limited educational opportunities. Consequently, the future of their craft heritage is now becoming economically and practically unsustainable, owing particularly to the global impact of fast fashion and the younger generations leaving the industry. Yet, at the same time, more and more consumers or users are becoming interested in traditional design processes and their provenance, and the makers and the techniques they use to produce these products, prior to purchase. For this research, three co-design projects were conducted with the Kashmir shawl artisan community and Australian users and collectors of their products. Two embroidered pashmina shawls were created by artisans working directly with two customers in Australia, while the third co-design project reintroduced using natural dyes to the shawl community. This practice-based research on co-designing within the context of artisan craft heritage investigates and documents the role of ‘facilitators’ sourced from within the artisan community; a re-evaluation of ‘value’ as perceived by intercultural participants; and using digital technologies to connect user and maker through storytelling and lived experience. The relevance of relationship-building to sustainability, recognised within the frameworks of co-design theory and slow fashion, are key drivers of this research. Through the researcher’s Kashmiri connections, these co-design projects were built on rare and unique access to artisans in their work environment who shared their perceptions of their work, relationships and values, without commercial or social status concerns. This research proposes a new understanding of co-design methodologies in the Indian context and highlights the potential constraints of language differences and geographical distances between the intercultural participants. The research also contributes to a critical rethinking of assumptions within contemporary co-design practices, especially when working with participants whose culture and values differ. The emergent co-design strategies proposed in this research have significant application to projects in other traditional artisanal communities in India, and towards a more sustainable future for handmade crafts.

  • (2022) Denny-Smith, George
    Indigenous procurement policies have gained popularity as a form of social procurement in Australia and other countries with colonised populations as governments seek to create social value for and address the socioeconomic inequities experienced by Indigenous peoples. In Australia, Indigenous procurement policies require governments to meet purchasing and employment targets of Indigenous suppliers and workers. The construction industry is a major contributor to the success of these policies because of its size as an employer and the significant infrastructure investment commitments made by Australian governments before, and in response to, COVID-19. However, this thesis argues that the methods used to evaluate these policies are potentially misleading and misrepresent the potentially negative social value they could create. Operationalising an Indigenous evaluation framework and designed around principles of decolonised and community-based research, this thesis investigates the social value created by Indigenous procurement policies in the Australian construction industry. Findings indicate that creating social value for Indigenous construction workers may require a broader focus on culturally supportive workplaces. Findings also indicate that in general, Indigenous procurement policies can create social value when their aims are supported by all stakeholders. However, the policies can also create negative social value through compliance-driven behaviour and tokenistic employment which prevents Indigenous business and workforce development. Recommendations are made to address this and maximise the social value the policies create. Methodologically, this thesis shows how Indigenous programs and policies can be evaluated in partnership with Indigenous stakeholders. Theoretically, the findings help illuminate the underexplored area of social value in construction. Practically, this thesis will help construction managers aiming to develop, implement and evaluate Indigenous procurement strategies to create social value in partnership with the communities in which they operate.

  • (2023) Si, Yafei
    This thesis consists of three empirical studies focusing on the health and health care utilisation of older adults using the healthy ageing framework proposed by the World Health Organization in 2015. In Essay 1, I examine the relationships between life-course factors and intrinsic capacity, a break-through and strengths-based composite measure of ageing. I find that unfavourable early-life factors directly decrease late-life intrinsic capacities, particularly cognitive, sensory and psychological capacities rather than locomotor functioning and vitality, and these effects are exacerbated by the cumulative socioeconomic inequalities over a person’s life course. In Essay 2, I employ the method of standardised patients to identify the overuse of health care, document its patterns, and quantify its financial impact on patients in primary care in China. My findings suggest that overuse is pervasive in primary care in China and leads to a significant increase in health care expenditure. The overuse in my setting seems unlikely to be attributable to physician incompetence. My findings shed light on the cost escalation of primary care in China, which is a form of medical inefficiency that should be urgently addressed. In Essay 3, I further investigate the impact of physician over-service on the quality of care provided, since physician over-service can also contribute to physicians’ learning and therefore better health care. I report new evidence that physician over-service is associated with a significant increase in physicians’ investment in learning, such as consultation length, adherence to checklists, and patient-centred communication, but no significant change in giving a correct diagnosis, correct drug prescriptions or a referral. Moreover, over-service in drugs is associated with a significant increase in physicians’ better learning and the provision of correct drugs. However, my findings imply that physician over-service does not improve the accuracy of physicians’ decisions. The higher rate of correct drug prescriptions was mainly explained by the prescription of more drugs.

  • (2024) Stringer, Andrea
    Many teachers enter the education profession with high levels of intrinsic motivation that require constant nurturing. People are motivated towards growth when their psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness, and competence are satisfied. By meeting these needs, coaching in a facilitative environment enhances intrinsic motivation. This research explores the environment for and the implementation of coaching programs to increase the learning and wellbeing or professional growth of early career teachers (ECTs). The three schools selected exemplify diverse geographic regions, school levels, and sectors within the Australian state of New South Wales. Each school independently developed a coaching program tailored to its context. This qualitative, multiple-site case study used thematically coded interviews and corresponding coaching documents to explore each school’s learning environment, coaching program, and motivational factors. The motivational theory of Self-Determination and the Four-Capital Framework for developing and retaining teachers structure this study, linking and extending contemporary coaching theories and knowledge. This study indicates that ECTs’ primary motivation for professional growth stemmed from a positive learning environment that facilitated coaching, which principals, coaches, and ECTs perceived as effective professional learning that supported wellbeing. All principals strongly believed in and were committed to their staff, research, and coaching, creating a psychologically safe, learner-focused environment that supported the ECTs’ sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. School-embedded coaching requires effective communication, a clear purpose, aligned policies and procedures, and defined roles. In addition to teaching experience and coaching training, the coaches’ dispositions facilitated the essential trust-based coaching relationship. All schools exhibited contextual coaching by analysing current issues and evaluating the benefits and barriers to determine whether the purpose and program needed modification or expansion. The evidence suggests that contextual coaching demands collective responsibility, including collaborative efforts and funding from entities beyond the school, as time was a significant constraint. The extra support and funding safeguard time for coaching and contribute to nurturing ECTs’ motivation, learning, and wellbeing to enhance their professional growth.

  • (2024) Chen, Shu
    My thesis consists of three interconnected projects on ageing and health that aim to improve health, access to long-term care, and reduce health inequities among older people, to foster a healthy ageing society. The first project advances the ageing metrics to reassess the implications of ageing for China. Specifically, it aims to measure the disease burden of ageing based on age-related diseases (ARDs), explore the sex and regional disparities, and the impact of health resources allocation on the burden in China. I used Global Burden of Diseases study estimates from 1990-2016 and China’s official statistics from 2010-2016 of 31 provinces of mainland China for analysis. I first identified the ARDs, calculated the burden of ARDs, and assessed the regional and sex disparity and historical change from 1990-2016. Fixed effects regression models were adopted to evaluate the impact of health expenditures and health workforce indicators on the ARD burden in 2010–2016. The study findings indicate that chronological age alone does not provide a sufficiently strong basis for appropriate resource planning or policymaking for population ageing. In China, concerted efforts should be made to reduce age-related diseases and the regional disparities of the burden in the east, central and west of China. More health resources should be allocated to western provinces, which are seemingly young but face large health challenges due to future ageing. The second project focuses on multimorbidity, an increasingly prevalent condition among older people. Specifically, it aims to assess the association between multimorbidity and informal long-term care (LTC) use in China, exploring socioeconomic and regional disparities. The study included 10,831 community-dwelling respondents aged 45 years and older from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2015, and 2018 for analysis. A two-part model with random effects to estimate the association between multimorbidity and informal LTC use. The heterogeneity of the association by socioeconomic position (education and income) and region was explored via a subgroup analysis. In addition, the change of informal LTC hours associated with multimorbidity was converted into monetary value, and the 95% uncertainty interval (UI) was calculated. We found a significantly positive association between multimorbidity and informal LTC use among older people, and those in higher socioeconomic status had better access to informal LTC. Our findings substantiate the threat of multimorbidity to LTC burden and call for strengthening the LTC services provision among older adults with multimorbidity. The third project focuses on dementia, another significant health threat among older people. Specifically, it studies the association between social environment, measured by the novel polysocial risk score, and dementia and explores whether a healthy lifestyle can mitigate the impact of an unfavourable social environment on developing dementia despite genetic risks. My study included 5,199 participants from the US Health and Retirement Study from 2006 to 2020 and selected 19 social determinants of health to develop the polysocial risk score. I used a survival analysis approach to assess the association between social environment and dementia risk in 2006-2020 and further explored the interaction between social environment and lifestyles and racial disparities. The study results suggest that an unfavourable social environment is linked to an increased risk of dementia, but healthy lifestyles can offset the increased risk. Further, the polysocial risk score is found to be a valuable new measure to complement the existing risk assessment tools to identify high-risk people. In summary, the three projects have generated original high-quality evidence on ageing and health, in accordance with the WHO public health framework to achieve healthy ageing, using longitudinal datasets from China and the US. They contribute to three out of four entry points of the WHO framework on 1) an improvement of healthy ageing metrics for a better understanding of the interactions between ageing and health (Project 1); 2) fostering an integrated health and LTC provision among older people with multimorbidity (Project 2); and 3) the development of an age-friendly social environment to prevent dementia (Project 3).