Arts Design & Architecture
Arts Design & Architecture
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(2022) Herse, SaritaThesisAs collaborative agents are implemented within everyday environments and the workforce, user trust in these agents becomes critical to consider. Trust affects user decision making, rendering it an essential component to consider when designing for successful Human-Agent Collaboration (HAC). The purpose of this work is to investigate the relationship between user trust and decision making with the overall aim of providing a trust calibration methodology to achieve the goals and optimise the outcomes of HAC. Recommender systems are used as a testbed for investigation, offering insight on human collaboration with dyadic decision domains. Four studies are conducted and include in-person, online, and simulation experiments. The first study provides evidence of a relationship between user perception of a collaborative agent and trust. Outcomes of the second study demonstrate that initial trust can be used to predict task outcome during HAC, with Signal Detection Theory (SDT) introduced as a method to interpret user decision making in-task. The third study provides evidence to suggest that the implementation of different features within a single agent's interface influences user perception and trust, subsequently impacting outcomes of HAC. Finally, a computational trust calibration methodology harnessing a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) model and SDT is presented and assessed, providing an improved understanding of the mechanisms governing user trust and its relationship with decision making and collaborative task performance during HAC. The contributions from this work address important gaps within the HAC literature. The implications of the proposed methodology and its application to alternative domains are identified and discussed.
Sone athe (golden hands) : Intercultural co-design strategies for the sustainable future of artisans in Indian traditional handcrafted textile communities(2022) Emmett, DeborahThesisThis practice-based research focuses on traditional textile artisan communities in Kashmir, India, who create handcrafted products with expertise learnt through intergenerational observation and making. The research shows that the rich cultural heritage inherent in these communities has the potential for growth towards a sustainable future through co-design projects. Assumptions in contemporary co-design processes are, however, based on industrialised and technological contexts which need to be reconsidered when working with artisanal communities in India. As members of India’s informal economy, these artisans tend to have low socio-economic status and limited educational opportunities. Consequently, the future of their craft heritage is now becoming economically and practically unsustainable, owing particularly to the global impact of fast fashion and the younger generations leaving the industry. Yet, at the same time, more and more consumers or users are becoming interested in traditional design processes and their provenance, and the makers and the techniques they use to produce these products, prior to purchase. For this research, three co-design projects were conducted with the Kashmir shawl artisan community and Australian users and collectors of their products. Two embroidered pashmina shawls were created by artisans working directly with two customers in Australia, while the third co-design project reintroduced using natural dyes to the shawl community. This practice-based research on co-designing within the context of artisan craft heritage investigates and documents the role of ‘facilitators’ sourced from within the artisan community; a re-evaluation of ‘value’ as perceived by intercultural participants; and using digital technologies to connect user and maker through storytelling and lived experience. The relevance of relationship-building to sustainability, recognised within the frameworks of co-design theory and slow fashion, are key drivers of this research. Through the researcher’s Kashmiri connections, these co-design projects were built on rare and unique access to artisans in their work environment who shared their perceptions of their work, relationships and values, without commercial or social status concerns. This research proposes a new understanding of co-design methodologies in the Indian context and highlights the potential constraints of language differences and geographical distances between the intercultural participants. The research also contributes to a critical rethinking of assumptions within contemporary co-design practices, especially when working with participants whose culture and values differ. The emergent co-design strategies proposed in this research have significant application to projects in other traditional artisanal communities in India, and towards a more sustainable future for handmade crafts.
(2022) Denny-Smith, GeorgeThesisIndigenous procurement policies have gained popularity as a form of social procurement in Australia and other countries with colonised populations as governments seek to create social value for and address the socioeconomic inequities experienced by Indigenous peoples. In Australia, Indigenous procurement policies require governments to meet purchasing and employment targets of Indigenous suppliers and workers. The construction industry is a major contributor to the success of these policies because of its size as an employer and the significant infrastructure investment commitments made by Australian governments before, and in response to, COVID-19. However, this thesis argues that the methods used to evaluate these policies are potentially misleading and misrepresent the potentially negative social value they could create. Operationalising an Indigenous evaluation framework and designed around principles of decolonised and community-based research, this thesis investigates the social value created by Indigenous procurement policies in the Australian construction industry. Findings indicate that creating social value for Indigenous construction workers may require a broader focus on culturally supportive workplaces. Findings also indicate that in general, Indigenous procurement policies can create social value when their aims are supported by all stakeholders. However, the policies can also create negative social value through compliance-driven behaviour and tokenistic employment which prevents Indigenous business and workforce development. Recommendations are made to address this and maximise the social value the policies create. Methodologically, this thesis shows how Indigenous programs and policies can be evaluated in partnership with Indigenous stakeholders. Theoretically, the findings help illuminate the underexplored area of social value in construction. Practically, this thesis will help construction managers aiming to develop, implement and evaluate Indigenous procurement strategies to create social value in partnership with the communities in which they operate.
(2023) Si, YafeiThesisThis thesis consists of three empirical studies focusing on the health and health care utilisation of older adults using the healthy ageing framework proposed by the World Health Organization in 2015. In Essay 1, I examine the relationships between life-course factors and intrinsic capacity, a break-through and strengths-based composite measure of ageing. I find that unfavourable early-life factors directly decrease late-life intrinsic capacities, particularly cognitive, sensory and psychological capacities rather than locomotor functioning and vitality, and these effects are exacerbated by the cumulative socioeconomic inequalities over a person’s life course. In Essay 2, I employ the method of standardised patients to identify the overuse of health care, document its patterns, and quantify its financial impact on patients in primary care in China. My findings suggest that overuse is pervasive in primary care in China and leads to a significant increase in health care expenditure. The overuse in my setting seems unlikely to be attributable to physician incompetence. My findings shed light on the cost escalation of primary care in China, which is a form of medical inefficiency that should be urgently addressed. In Essay 3, I further investigate the impact of physician over-service on the quality of care provided, since physician over-service can also contribute to physicians’ learning and therefore better health care. I report new evidence that physician over-service is associated with a significant increase in physicians’ investment in learning, such as consultation length, adherence to checklists, and patient-centred communication, but no significant change in giving a correct diagnosis, correct drug prescriptions or a referral. Moreover, over-service in drugs is associated with a significant increase in physicians’ better learning and the provision of correct drugs. However, my findings imply that physician over-service does not improve the accuracy of physicians’ decisions. The higher rate of correct drug prescriptions was mainly explained by the prescription of more drugs.
Coaching Early Career Teachers: Exploring the Implementation of Coaching in Schools for Professional Growth(2024) Stringer, AndreaThesisMany teachers enter the education profession with high levels of intrinsic motivation that require constant nurturing. People are motivated towards growth when their psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness, and competence are satisfied. By meeting these needs, coaching in a facilitative environment enhances intrinsic motivation. This research explores the environment for and the implementation of coaching programs to increase the learning and wellbeing or professional growth of early career teachers (ECTs). The three schools selected exemplify diverse geographic regions, school levels, and sectors within the Australian state of New South Wales. Each school independently developed a coaching program tailored to its context. This qualitative, multiple-site case study used thematically coded interviews and corresponding coaching documents to explore each school’s learning environment, coaching program, and motivational factors. The motivational theory of Self-Determination and the Four-Capital Framework for developing and retaining teachers structure this study, linking and extending contemporary coaching theories and knowledge. This study indicates that ECTs’ primary motivation for professional growth stemmed from a positive learning environment that facilitated coaching, which principals, coaches, and ECTs perceived as effective professional learning that supported wellbeing. All principals strongly believed in and were committed to their staff, research, and coaching, creating a psychologically safe, learner-focused environment that supported the ECTs’ sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. School-embedded coaching requires effective communication, a clear purpose, aligned policies and procedures, and defined roles. In addition to teaching experience and coaching training, the coaches’ dispositions facilitated the essential trust-based coaching relationship. All schools exhibited contextual coaching by analysing current issues and evaluating the benefits and barriers to determine whether the purpose and program needed modification or expansion. The evidence suggests that contextual coaching demands collective responsibility, including collaborative efforts and funding from entities beyond the school, as time was a significant constraint. The extra support and funding safeguard time for coaching and contribute to nurturing ECTs’ motivation, learning, and wellbeing to enhance their professional growth.