Arts Design & Architecture

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 67
  • (2020) Marzban, Samin
    Thesis
    Residential buildings with single-sided ventilated (SSV) facade require greater energy consumption of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems to achieve a comfortable indoor environment and to maintain the health and productivity of the occupants. SSV facade has been reported to increase the likelihood of a poor indoor environment and high energy consumption. Hence, optimizing SSV facade design to create an energy-efficient and comfortable indoor environment is a challenging task. Existing studies have employed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to analyze natural ventilation of buildings with SSV facade or passive design strategies to reduce energy consumption. However, most existing studies have focused on addressing individual performance issues of SSV facade such as natural ventilation or energy consumption. There has been a lack of dealing with the integrated performance of SSV facade especially the integrated optimal performance across ventilation efficiency, energy efficiency and visual comfort. There has been also a lack of understanding which design variables and relationships may drive optimal performance of SSV facade design. This research aims to fill the research gap by developing an innovative self-adaptive evolutionary model to optimize SSV facade design, targeted at the integrated optimal performance across ventilation efficiency, energy efficiency and visual comfort. The model includes a self-adaptation and learning mechanism which integrates unsupervised machine learning with evolutionary algorithms. The self-adaptation and learning mechanism has the ability to discover emergent patterns named evolved genes which represent key design variables and relationships that lead to high-performance of ventilation efficiency, energy efficiency and visual comfort of SSV facade design. The discovered key design variables and relationships are then evolved from simple to complex in the self-adaptive evolutionary process until a set of optimal SSV facade design is obtained. The utility of the self-adaptive evolutionary model is demonstrated using multi-story residential buildings with SSV facade in Sydney. A set of optimal SSV facade design is obtained in the prototype implementation, which shows on average 20% improvement in ventilation efficiency, 40% energy saving on heating and cooling loads and improvement in daylight visual comfort compared to the baseline performance of a building with SSV facade v design. The evolved genes in different complexities are discovered and evolved over time, demonstrating the dynamic mapping between key SSV facade design variables and high-performance outcomes of ventilation efficiency, energy efficiency and visual comfort. The analysis results also prove the effectiveness of the self-adaptation and learning mechanism, which accelerates the process to enable high-performance of SSV facade design to be achieved at earlier generations and increases the integrated optimal performance of SSV facade design by 6 - 8% compared to a conventional evolutionary process. This research develops an innovative interdisciplinary approach which is built upon artificial intelligence, facade optimization and building sustainability to tackling the challenge faced in SSV facade design. Research outcomes will advance the interdisciplinary knowledge of utilizing artificial intelligence technologies to improve the indoor environment and reduce energy consumption of SSV facade design.

  • (2021) Shepherd, Richard
    Thesis
    Within the planning profession, the public interest is enshrined as a core rationale for practice even as academic literature continues to question the existence and function of this rationale. Concrete outcomes of the public interest are rarely considered in planning structures and processes, resulting in the perception that the term is a tangential, or lip-service, consideration within the profession. A lack of explicit acknowledgement can be contrasted with consideration of the concept of ‘civicness’ – arguably a more tangible indicator of public interest concerns within the profession. This research focuses on how the planning system approaches ‘civicness’, exploring how this can be read discursively as representative of a contextualised public interest. Drawing on the paradigmatic framework of Habermas and Foucault, both utopian and cynical representations of the public interest are challenged. Discourse analysis techniques, particularly a dialectic Critical Discourse Analysis framework, are used to critically explore key civic concepts as they relate to planning, considering broader contextual themes and rendering conceptions of ‘the public interest’ as legible and interpretable. Australian urban civic conceptions are explored, with the city of Newcastle (New South Wales) as context owing to its scale and history within the state, its contemporary reinvention following decades of ‘Steel City’ neglect and economic malaise, and its unmistakable manifestations of ‘civicness’ in institutions, processes and designed/material outcomes. Applying the Critical Discourse Analysis framework to three case studies – Newcastle City Council, the preparation of the Greater Newcastle Metropolitan Plan 2036, and Newcastle’s ‘Civic Precinct’ – the research is then utilised to explore a specific representation of action toward and manifestations of ‘civicness’. This in turn contributes to the legibility of public interest manifestations in differing scales of planning practice and within broader, more theoretical, paradigms. While more exploratory than definitive, this thesis proposes that considering ‘civicness’ within the urban environment is a means by which to contextualise and ground the public interest within planning, ensuring this key professional and theoretical rationale retains its relevance and richness in an increasingly complex and challenging planning environment.

  • (2020) Zhu, Jin
    Thesis
    Against a global backdrop of growing concerns on housing crises, Chinese megacities have earned unwelcome distinction as among the world’s least affordable housing markets. Spatial planning, as a supply-side institutional component of housing systems, has formed a prime focus of contestation on factors influencing housing outcomes, especially in Anglosphere nations. Rarely, however, have such debates been conducted regarding housing markets in China. Crucially, while spatial planning in some advanced economies has weathered trenchant criticism informed by a neo-liberal mentality, planning in China is prioritised by local governments as a vital tool of pro-growth governance. Focusing on Shanghai, as representative of Chinese megacities, this thesis explores how a pro-growth planning regime has contributed to housing outcomes in this urban context. It is guided by three questions: How has developable land supply affected housing affordability? How are residential property values influenced by local plans? How has the planning regime contributed to housing outcomes for low-income groups? To address them, both qualitative and quantitative techniques are employed. Research findings confirm that planning policy contributes to sub-optimal housing system performance. Specifically, while serving state interests and fulfilling diverse policy aspirations, restrictive land release stimulates market speculation; amenity distribution and zoning regulations reinforce metropolitan mono-centricity and house price dynamics which induce socio-spatial sifting of low-income groups into the least favourable locations. Moreover, the inadequate arrangement of public housing for hukou populations and rising clearance of informal housing accommodating non-local hukou populations undermine their wellbeing. As a governmental toolset mainly acting to promote state accumulation and authority, Shanghai’s pro-growth planning regime accords little priority to the social needs of low-income populations. In cities like Shanghai, resulting housing outcomes are compounding inequality, damaging socio-political stability and impairing urban productivity. The planning paradigm calls for a transition from state-interests-driven to social-needs-driven approaches for equitably distributed prosperity, social cohesion and wellbeing. Albeit that public landownership and a positive planning regime could contribute to these objectives, achievement of such a transition calls for strong political willpower.

  • (2021) Garshasbi, Samira
    Thesis
    Urban heat effect is a serious environmental issue impacting many big cities around the world. One of the main factors contributing to the urban overheating are highly absorptive construction materials such as asphalt and concrete. The literature shows that the existing urban mitigation techniques including greeneries, water-based technologies, and available heat-rejecting materials are not capable of addressing the future urban overheating intensity, and therefore, it is essential to develop more efficient urban mitigation technologies with higher cooling potential. In addition, some cities have harsh climate conditions in both summer and winter, and as a result, adaptive technologies such as temperature-sensitive/thermochromic coating materials for reducing the energy needs during the whole year should be developed. In this context, nano-scale fluorescent materials (quantum dots (QDs)) as novel heat-rejecting materials for mitigation of the urban overheating are developed and their cooling potential for the urban heat mitigation is estimated in this research. The developed QDs-based coatings have two main characteristics making them ideal heat-rejecting material for the urban heat mitigation application. The two major features of QDs include: 1. Tuneable fluorescent properties due to quantum confinement effect at nanoscale, 2. High transmission of QDs as semiconductors at wavelengths longer than their absorption edge band. In this research, for the very first time, a novel mathematical model for the optimization of the fluorescent cooling and calculation of non-radiative losses is developed. The most effective methods for enhancing the fluorescent cooling potential were then proposed according to the fluorescent cooling model estimations. This research reports some experimental work on reducing the thermal loss in QDs-based films. In addition to that, a novel bilayer supercool material composed of a fluorescent material and a near-infrared (NIR)-reflective material was proposed. The bilayer fluorescent-NIR-reflective materials works based on the high transmission of the QDs as top layer and high reflection of the NIR-reflective material at wavelengths longer than the absorption edge of the QDs material. As for the climates with extreme weather conditions during winter and summer, the recent developments on dye-based temperature-sensitive/thermochromic materials for building application were reviewed. The main issue for their real application was discussed, and alternative thermochromic technologies for the building application were identified. In particular, the temperature-sensitive properties of QDs-based coatings were described in detail. An extended version of the fluorescent cooling algorithm was developed to study the cooling and heating performance of temperature-sensitive fluorescent materials during hot and cold seasons.

  • (2020) Xiong, Xueying
    Thesis
    As a country that embraces multiple cultures, Australia attracts thousands of migrants every year. China is the second-largest immigrant sourcing country to Australia. With a large number of working-age immigrants moving to Australia, a critical question is raised: where will the parents of these immigrants live when their parents retire? Existing studies on elderly location choices primarily focused on inter-state migration or internal mobility within states or cities. However, different from internal migration, transnational migration usually involves a significant lifestyle change as to how they perceive risk or benefit in a destination country and mediate their place attachment in the origin country. This study investigates the immigration intentions/decisions of older Chinese by examining how their children in Australia perceived a family reunion with their parents in Australia. A random sampling survey was conducted among first-generation Chinese immigrants living in Sydney. Opinions and information about their parents’ immigration intentions/decisions, future living arrangement, and the intergenerational transfer pattern were collected. A multinomial logistic model was developed to find out the determinants. This was followed by interviews with these Chinese families to further explore influential elements. The result identified that demographics of the adult children have a significant impact on elderly parents’ immigration intentions/decisions. Elderly parents’ health status, personality and lifestyle preference are also vital. Despite personal attributes, the relationship between two generations, intergenerational transfer (especially financial transfer from parents to adult children), and family structure all intervene this immigration intentions/decisions. Mothers and fathers are found to be impacted by different elements. For example, mothers care more about their children’s marital status while fathers are more concerned about the children’s career. As for living arrangement, a large proportion of adult children believe that their parents will live independently when retire which is re-interpreting the practice of filial piety to more emphasis on spiritual factors. Policy and planning implications were discussed including varied migration policies and associated welfare plan, multi-language services and community services.

  • (2020) Yang, Siliang
    Thesis
    The building envelope, the interface between indoor and outdoor, plays a major role in influencing the impact of outdoor climate and controlling the indoor thermal conditions; hence, maintaining the health and productivity of building occupants. The building envelope also significantly influences indoor heating and cooling loads and therefore building energy consumption. Both electric power and useful thermal energy can be obtained from building-integrated photovoltaic systems (BIPV/T), which have the potential to reduce energy consumption of buildings. Double-skin façades (DSF) are well-adopted for enhancing energy efficiency and improving indoor thermal comfort. Thus, this study investigates the overall performance of a combination of BIPV/T and DSF using simulation analysis, hence identifying the optimal design solution, which was embodied in numerical assessment of indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption for a commercial building. In the study, different BIPV materials (amorphous silicon PV, dye-sensitized solar cell and Perovskite-based solar cells) were considered as the exterior cladding of an office building. The performance assessment involved three climates in Australia – from hot humid to cool temperate – represented by the cities of Darwin, Sydney and Canberra respectively. The air cavity of the BIPV/T-DSF was alternatively assessed in non-ventilated, naturally-ventilated and mechanically-ventilated modes of operation, while a sensitivity analysis determined the most influential design parameters to be optimised. The study found that the perovskite-based solar cells was the optimal configuration achieving ideal performance on indoor thermal comfort and energy saving. In Darwin, the optimal design solution was naturally-ventilated BIPV/T-DSF facing 50° north-by-west for all year round, with the use of thermal transmittance of the DSF’s internal window (Uin) of 3.1 W/m2.K and solar heat gain coefficient of the DSF’s external window (SHGCout) of 0.44. In Sydney and Canberra, DSF facing due north was the optimal direction for the both locations, while non-ventilated and naturally-ventilated modes being utilised during the cold and warm periods, respectively. Moreover, for Sydney and Canberra the optimal values of Uout (thermal transmittance of the DSF’s external window) and SHGCout were 3 W/m2.K and 0.44 respectively, while the optimal Uin was 5.16 W/m2.K and 1.4 W/m2.K respectively for Sydney and Canberra.

  • (2020) D'Ascenzi, Eleonora
    Thesis
    The role of Italian architects has changed during the last ten years evolving from traditional architectural design work to small design-maintenance interventions. In addition to the recent European economic crisis, other factors have contributed to this transformation. The aim of this study is to evaluate these factors and their significant impact on the profession by providing an overview of both the practice of Italian architects over the last decade and the changes affecting the profession in recent times. This process has involved investigating the specific causes of this evolution and identifying the broader and contextual factors that have contributed to this situation. Various methods have been adopted to include architectural historiography, analysis of existing data and oral history interviews. The results showed that although the impact of the economic crisis has been critical, the transformation of the role of the Italian architects depends also on the geographical location, the educational background and the socio-cultural mindset. Further, this study revealed that the Italian situation evaluated against the European economic recession might be considered unique in particular because the role is still evolving. In-depth studies of the influence of geographical, cultural and social aspects over a wider time-frame may produce further insights into the profession. In addition, this research might be applied to other European countries in the common interest of a cross-cultural comparisons.

  • (2021) Sullivan, Kirrily
    Thesis
    This thesis is concerned with the role of the community in the conservation of its cultural heritage. In the current pro-developer climate, built heritage in New South Wales is under constant threat, coupled with significantly reduced heritage conservation funding across all tiers of government. A broadened understanding of who heritage belongs to, and who should be involved in decision-making processes, has resulted in efforts by powerholders to develop policies that emphasise the importance of community participation. The aim of this research is to investigate the authenticity of those participation efforts and the actual power of the community to influence the outcomes of the decision-making process. This research centres around three case studies: Strickland House, Carrathool Bridge and the Sirius Apartment building, each a site owned by the New South Wales State Government that included a significant level of community consultation as part of determining their fate. The thesis draws on both oral testimony and primary documents to investigate the authenticity of the consultation processes, alongside the seminal 1969 work of Sherry Arnstein and later interpretations of her Ladder of Citizen Participation. Where communities have then taken on the role of activists to protect their heritage, the tactics and strategies they employed to enact change will be examined in conjunction with models for nonviolent confrontation, including community organiser Bill Moyer’s Movement Action Plan. The case studies indicate that often there is no real power for negotiation and no assurance that the public’s concerns and ideas will be considered. There appears to be a gap between the written strategies and statements of government heritage departments and agencies, and the reality of implementation and genuine collaboration. The actual role of the community often amounts to little more than government rhetoric. By utilising classic social activism tactics to protect sites of cultural significance, local communities can gain the power to influence the protection and management of their heritage denied to them by the powerholders.

  • (2021) Quinn, Catriona
    Thesis
    Twentieth-century Australia saw a multiplicity of expressions of modernity and fashionability in interior design, yet narrowly defined historical views of the aesthetics of the modern interior have left the majority of practices during the post-war boom undocumented. The study investigates the work of Noel Coulson and Decor Associates, two Australian interior designers working in the post-war period. This thesis, drawing on the work of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu and developing concepts derived from British design historian Penny Sparke, analyses these practices and six client case studies through its two key themes of hybridity and modern not modernist. The two designers, it is argued, are exemplars of hybrid practitioners who acted as both producers and mediators. The client case studies expand the theme of modern not modernist – interiors whose modernity is defined by lifestyle and expression of identity. This thesis concludes that recognition of the role of the client is fundamental to exposing the hybridity of the designers’ practices and the diversity of the aesthetics of the modern interior. The findings support the validity of the two concepts in understanding the significance of previously overlooked design styles, contesting their historical relegation and re-evaluating their capacity for expansion of the historical field. This thesis proposes that the two key themes offer a new framework to re-examine the work of interior designers currently omitted from design history.

  • (2020) Holliday, Stephen
    Thesis
    A vast range of redundant buildings have been converted to various forms of tourist accommodation for thousands of years and Sydney has excellent recent examples of this phenomenon. This study has sought to understand why adaptive reuse hotels have been more prevalent in Sydney city since the 1980s. Research of academic, industry, authority & property documents have contributed to the creation of customized Tourist Accommodation Registers for all current and most former tourist accommodation in the city, to allow analysis and comparison of both adaptive reuse and custom-built establishments across all types including hotels, pubs, serviced apartments and backpacker hostels. A study of the characteristics and history of tourism, adaptive reuse buildings, heritage and property sector dynamics related to Sydney city have provided context for this thesis and revealed trends and counter-cyclical patterns of hotel development in the city. The effects of heritage awareness, legislation and fluctuating property fortunes since the late 1970s, together with the inherent suitability and sustainability of hotels for conversion from a wide range of building types, have combined to make adaptive reuse hotels a significant feature of Sydney’s tourist accommodation scene. The faster delivery, relatively smaller scale and good triple bottom-line ESD credentials of adaptive reuse hotels compared with custom-built hotels have made them flexible, viable and attractive to owners and developers and more prevalent since the 1980s. Although large custom-built hotels still dominate room numbers in the city, the challenges of site consolidation for large developments, and changing tourist patterns including more free-independent travellers from China and other huge growth markets, should continue to enhance the attractiveness of boutique and authentic establishments, especially those converted from obsolete heritage buildings in prime tourist precincts. Due to their long history of hospitality, hotels are usually perceived to be more public than other commercial building types and consequently more politically palatable for conversion of government assets, which will continue to be the source of adaptive reuse opportunities.