Arts Design & Architecture

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • (2022) Aung, Htein Linn
    With widespread access to combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) and HIV suppression, life expectancy among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is increasing more than ever. According to UNAIDS, there were 8.1 million older PLHIV (i.e., 50 years of age and over) in 2020 globally. Although HIV-associated dementia has become rare in the cART era, mild neurocognitive impairments remain prevalent among PLHIV (~30% in virally suppressed). With aging, there is an increasing concern that HIV may precipitate neurocognitive abnormal aging because HIV is associated with increased markers of aging (e.g., immunosenescence and hyper-coagulopathy) and multiple age and HIV-related comorbidities (e.g., cardiovascular diseases). Importantly, these comorbidities occur at an earlier age and at a higher rate among PLHIV compared to age-matched HIV-negative persons. Earlier, more severe and more rapidly progressing neurocognitive impairment would have major public health consequences for the millions of PLHIV and the healthcare system. The overarching aim of this PhD thesis is to determine whether having chronic stable HIV infection and suppressive ART is associated with abnormal cognitive aging including premature cognitive aging (HIV and age synergistically/addictively lead to much lower cognitive performance at a younger age compared to controls), accentuated cognitive aging (HIV and age synergistically/addictively lead to much greater prevalence and severity of neurocognitive impairment), and/or accelerated cognitive aging (HIV and age synergistically/ addictively lead to much more rapid progression of neurocognitive impairment). To address these questions, we used a range of scientific methodologies including a systematic review, and several types of advanced statistical analyses using national and international longitudinal cohort data. First, to contextualise the potential public health consequences of cognitive aging in PLHIV, we conducted a narrative review of the burden of established dementia risk factors among PLHIV. We identified that the burden of several major dementia risk factors is much greater among PLHIV than in the general population. Second, we conducted the first-ever systematic review evaluating the current evidence for premature, accentuated and accelerated cognitive aging among PLHIV. We determined moderate evidence for premature cognitive aging and strong evidence for accelerated cognitive aging, while accentuated cognitive aging had not been optimally assessed. Lastly, addressing the previous literature major limitations (low sample size, cross-sectional study design, low proportion of older PLHIV, and inadequate controls/norms), we quantified the profiles of cognitive aging in four longitudinal studies of PLHIV. We demonstrated robust trends for premature cognitive aging among PLHIV compared to age-matched HIV-negative persons. We also demonstrated that older PLHIV had a higher risk for both neurocognitive impairment and neurocognitive decline compared to younger PLHIV, while controlling for normative age effect. These results are indicative of both accentuated and accelerated aging, although our research identified the need for longer-term studies using very large sample size to assess these trends especially in PLHIV older than 70+. Based on these findings, we discussed implications for clinical practice and future research directions.

  • (2022) Sunstrum, Frederique
    Understanding product semantics and affective perceptions of product consumers undoubtedly offer significant value for industrial designers and their design practice. Deconstructing affective perceptions is a methodologically challenging task as it is implicit and subjective and is influenced by an individual’s aesthetic experience. Accordingly, how products are perceived differs among individuals or consumers, particularly in the distinct experiences that contribute to constructing an individual’s sense of perception of self or self-concept. Furthermore, research has shown that individuals are implicitly drawn to products that reaffirm and communicate their self-concept. If an individual’s preferences for products can reflect or enhance their self-concept, this suggests that understanding the underlying perceptual processes between the self-concept and product semantics can productively inform industrial design research. The thesis research develops and adapts methods from the disciplines of psychology, marketing, and industrial design to investigate these underlying perceptual processes of the self-concept and its relationships to product semantics. The thesis research investigates the underlying processes through a study on kettles that discloses the variances in sensory and cognitive evaluation and judgements through the process of aesthetic experience. The thesis further investigates the cognitive influences of the self-concept to reveal the mental models associated with the visual aesthetics of product form and how this influences aesthetic responses through product personality congruence. The thesis argues that the self-concept is a multidimensional construct reflected, in particular, through an individual’s (1) gender identity, (2) personality, (3) aesthetic sensitivity, and (4) interest, taste, and goals, that plays a vital role in the aesthetic experience of products. The thesis’s findings indicate that these individual components of the self-concept are essential in that they interplay in how the symbolic meaning of product semantics is visually perceived. The outcome of this thesis assists in, primarily, revealing the underlying stages of visual aesthetic processing to understand how product semantics is perceived through an individual’s self-concept.

  • (2023) Jayasuriya, Ushana
    This thesis aims to clarify the concept of a just climate transition. I focus on the Aotearoa New Zealand context to illustrate how we might understand what is involved in a just transition and how we can measure if any transition is just. Within this context, the rights and interests of indigenous peoples, in Aotearoa New Zealand, Māori, are particularly relevant (Chapter Two). The thesis explores what a just transition for and with Māori should consist of in a multicultural society. Chapter Three introduces the capabilities approach as a useful tool for clarifying the substance of a just transition and addresses some challenges that it must overcome. Chapter Four begins the process of applying the conceptual aspects of the previous chapters to the Aotearoa New Zealand context. This chapter outlines some of the options for clean, renewable energy options in Aotearoa New Zealand, including some potential ethical concerns that might relate to them. The chapter also considers some cultural considerations and how these may influence what a just option ought to be. In particular, the chapter incorporates some Māori priorities and demonstrates how these might impact what is just for indigenous peoples in Aotearoa New Zealand. Finally, in Chapter Five I outline the principles that capture the nature of a just transition, using other frameworks and principles as a guide. This chapter also covers some other considerations for just transitions, such as why we might want to move away from a purely economic focus and how we might address issues of energy poverty. In addition, I discuss how to balance between the urgency to act on climate change and other imperatives of justice, which is an issue that has been raised by indigenous scholars.

  • (2023) Estrada Gonzalez, Vicente
    Artworks are increasingly experienced in non-traditional platforms, from digital collections on museum websites to virtual gallery tours, making it important to investigate the context-dependent and context-independent aspects of aesthetic experience. While some studies have shown that artworks in the museum elicit a higher visual engagement than when presented on a screen, others reported divergent findings. This thesis suggests that such discrepancies may be due to the interaction between the artwork's physical and contextual characteristics and investigates how diverse aspects of viewing behaviour change between the museum, on-screen laboratory, and virtual gallery laboratory contexts. Fifteen paintings by different Australian artists from the Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW) were included as stimuli for the studies in this thesis. Mobile and screen-based eye movement recordings were used to index visual engagement (number of fixations, total and average fixation duration) with artworks across the three different contexts. Our first study (Chapter 2) compared the visual engagement of museum visitors in the AGNSW to that of participants looking at their digital reproductions in laboratory. We focused on how aspects of viewing behaviour, including viewing distance in the gallery condition and eye gaze measures such as fixation count, total fixation duration and average fixation duration are affected by the artworks’ physical characteristics, including size and image statistics properties such as Fourier amplitude spectrum, fractal dimension and entropy. The effects of these factors on visual engagement were then explored in a virtual gallery replica of the exhibition (Chapter 3). In a virtual gallery context, we also tested the impact of two additional context-dependent factors: the curatorial arrangement and further manipulations of the relative size of the paintings. Overall, the results show significant differences in viewing behaviour across different contexts, but also that the effects of presentation contexts are modulated by the artworks’ physical characteristics. In the final two studies, the thesis explores the effect of mere exposure on viewing behaviour in different contexts (Chapter 4) and the spatial and temporal image statistics of fixated compared to non-fixated regions of artworks in both the museum and on- screen viewing contexts (Chapter 5). The results show that visual engagement in the museum, but not on-screen, is enhanced by previous exposure to digital reproductions of artworks. Finally, Chapter 5 demonstrates that fixated and randomly selected regions differed in both spatial and temporal image statistics with more pronounced differences in the on-screen viewing condition. In sum, the thesis demonstrates that a combination of context-dependent variables (e.g., navigation, curatorial setting and relative size) and the low-level properties (e.g., fractal dimension, amplitude spectrum, entropy) of artworks influence visual engagement.

  • (2023) Do, Lap-Xuan
    This research begins with debates at the intersection of race, colonialism, and language. As an artist and a woman of colour, I recognise my implication in the complexities of settler colonialism in Vietnam and Australia. The ‘conceptions of encounter’ outlined by Raewyn Connell (2013) are productive in my experimental research contexts. According to Connell, conceptions of encounter qualities include capacities for encounters, reciprocity, mutual respect and trust building. This practice-based research aims to performatively practise encounters through art using these conceptions of encounter as a guide. In positioning my creative research within the domain of socially engaged art, I examine the history of participatory art with a close look at Helguera’s framework of socially engaged art. Key examples from Vietnamese artists, Nguyen Thi Thanh Mai and Thinh Nguyen are analysed in relation to the ‘conceptions of encounter’ of Connell to review socially engaged art from the region. A/r/tography and various approaches inspired by Deleuze’s becomings provide a methodological lens to envision my acts of performative visualisations. I propose a series of criteria for practice-based encounters drawing on the work of Connell’s conceptions of encounter (2013), performative encounters by Anja Kanngieser (2012) and my own artistic experiments. Central to the criteria is a reflexive lens to enable iterative reflection on my practice. My practice-based works visualise transversal relationships, which I argue is the collective encounter with difference while sustaining individual understanding, respect, and autonomy. My work, therefore, explores intercultural communication, identity formation, and the dynamics of power and privilege when different groups interact. My body of work proposes practice-based encounters using various artistic devices, such as iterating voice, interpretations of colours, and situational renderings, to explore nuances of meanings and alternatives to knowledge-making in different artistic and learning contexts. In conclusion, an emergent theme is ‘voice’ used as a metaphor for enunciation, identity and positioning as well as the artistic tool to explore these concepts. I argue that ‘voice’ is subtle and ambiguous, and the diverse properties of voice are generative for contemporary audiences. Thus, the transversal relationship of voice has important implications for considering future questions of context, community, and participation in socially engaged practices.