UNSW Canberra

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  • (2012) Eggert, Paul
    Journal Article
    This essay is based on the seventeenth annual D. F. McKenzie lecture given at the University of Oxford on 2 March 2011. McKenzie is best known for his tolerant unrolling of the bibliographical into wider cultural and social realms, together with his implication that the material book can be treated as an index of them. Eggert’s essay argues for a timely counterbalance: the need for a regathering of the concept of the work, which largely fell from view during the period of high literary theory. A new model for interpretation is proposed by building reading, and thus the aesthetic, into the definition of the work, while retaining the evidentiary witness of the material book. The model offers, in other words, a justification for folding book history and bibliography into the literary study of all works that have enjoyed an extended history of printing and reprinting.

  • (2012) Purwoko Putro, Robertus
    This thesis examines the factors influencing the professionalisation of the Indonesian military. It looks beyond the ‘civil-military relations’ paradigm of conventional analysis, focusing instead on the cultural and historical legacies that have instilled a particular system of values in the military. In turn, these values are reinforced by the military’s educational and professional experience. It inquires into the legacy of political and social upheavals in 1965, when state power became heavily concentrated in the hands of the Indonesian Army. The post-1965 New Order regime buttressed its power by subordinating the Indonesian military and police to the supremacy of the Indonesian Army. In turn, the Army engaged in a process of cultural and historical self-legitimisation in order to cement its authority within the armed forces as well as within Indonesian society more generally. The thesis explores how concepts of what constituted Indonesian military professionalism were redefined and re-engineered according to certain values defined by the Army. The thesis shows how these historical and cultural legacies weigh heavily on contemporary attempts to reform the Indonesian military, creating major obstacles to its professionalisation. It focuses on the educational process as a ‘cultural centre’ from which military professionalism begins. Military education has become an arena in which soldiers’ cognitive schema, professional knowledge, and traditions are constructed. It is an arena where culture and values are invented, inculcated, and preserved across generations, especially for the officer corps. The thesis argues that prospects for Indonesian military professionalism remain incarcerated within a self-created historical legacy according to myths that the Indonesian Army has itself invented. It shows how the combination of historical legacy and cultural practices has produced a long-term crisis of professionalism.

  • (2012) Meng, Zhaosu
    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the strongest interannual source of variability leading to anomalous climatic conditions. This thesis examines how important it is in influencing agricultural production of rice. Statistical methods are used to analyze the relationship between ENSO, characterized by the Niño 3 index, and the component of rice production that depends on interannual climate variability (climate production). This only accounts for a small part of total production but, if the prediction of rice production is even fractionally improved by the inclusion of the effects of ENSO, large benefits could result. Climate production is extracted from total rice production by removing long-term trends and by the use of Savitisky-Golay smoothing functions. Econometric regression models for rice production including the Niño 3 index are constructed for two representative rice-growing provinces in China. It was found that, in northeastern China, ENSO is likely to lead to more precipitation in spring and to a lesser extent in summer, in the year during which El Niño is developing. In southern China, ENSO is likely to lead to more precipitation in the summer and autumn following an ENSO event, with the greatest effect on late-season rice. Air temperature shows a stronger correlation with ENSO than precipitation and in the same period, but is less likely to affect rice production. In northeastern China, a large fluctuation in climate production in a year following an ENSO peak is usually accompanied by a large variation in precipitation. In southern China, climate production of late-season rice and precipitation are positively correlated. Again, a large fluctuation in climate production in a year following ENSO peak is usually accompanied by large variation in precipitation and air temperature in the summer. The regression model for rice production in northeastern China is better than that for southern China, where local climate and other factors are relatively more important. The consumption of fertilizer is the most important factor in rice production in northern China, electricity consumption the most important factor in southern China.

  • (2012) Zhao, Wenjing
    Future air traffic management (ATM) systems are expected to handle the increasingly heavy demand on air traffic, especially in the highly constrained terminal manoeuvring area (TMA). However, the realizable capacity of current TMA is a challenge for future air transportation development. This is due to the limitations in accommodating safe and efficient travel under the highly limited airspace configuration strategies and pre-defined terminal trajectories. Therefore, making the TMA resources flexible and available corresponding to different traffic scenarios is the key to enhance the practical ATM efficiency in future TMAs. Improving the TMA airspace configuration to balance capacity and demand is a challenging task, since a TMA system inherently involves high uncertainties and multiple interactions among many different components. The inherent complexity of the TMA necessitates a system-level analysis approach, in which each component is investigated through modelling the complex interactions among other parts of the environment in which it operates. Hence, the process of understanding (through modelling), evaluating and dynamically designing TMA airspace configurations, while considering dynamic constrained ground resources, is becoming crucial for enhancing the practical ATM efficiency in future TMAs. A simulation-based co-evolutionary computational environment -- Co-evolutionary Computational Red Teaming (CCRT) -- is developed for evaluating advanced TMA airspace concepts and understanding the TMA system-level vulnerabilities. A novel TMA airspace design concept for capacity-demand balancing including a measure of collision risks derived from the probabilistic nature of aircraft's performance is proposed. A multi-objective CCRT is proposed to generate scenario-specific TMA airspace design strategies that are able to cope better with ground events/uncertainties and produce dynamic trajectories while maintaining ATM efficiency and aircraft safety. The multi-objective CCRT also provides an analyst with the trade-off between these two air traffic control priorities - efficiency and safety; thus solutions can be selected based on the criticality level of meeting the demand.

  • (2012) Hasan, Mahmudul
    In this thesis, both intensity and feature based automatic image registration approaches are addressed. In the first contribution of this thesis, the performance of both mutual information (MI) and cross-cumulative residual entropy (CCRE) as similarity measures are investigated in intensity based remote sensing image registration with Newton's gradient descent optimization algorithm. Although MI is the most popular choice for a similarity measure, the recently introduced CCRE measure was shown to be better than MI for multi-modal medical image registration. A Parzen-window approximation is applied to MI and CCRE to calculate their approximate gradients. Experimental results show that, for the case of registering several pairs of multi-modal images, including SAR, with a variety of affine deformations, CCRE provides superior performance to MI in terms of accuracy and success rate. In the second contribution of this thesis, a novel extension to the Parzen-window approximated maximization of similarity measures (MI & CCRE) is proposed which involves applying partial volume interpolation in the calculation of the gradients of the similarity measure. A new efficient implementation is also proposed which not only improves the computation time of MI and CCRE with partial volume interpolation but also improves the computation time of MI and CCRE. It is shown that introducing partial volume interpolation improves the performance of both CCRE and MI in terms of registration robustness and accuracy on the same set of data that was used to compare the performance of CCRE and MI. In the third contribution of this thesis, several issues of the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), which is the most popular feature based image registration method, with multi-modal remote sensing images are addressed and their possible solutions are proposed. As the SIFT method is not designed for multi-modal images, it suffers very poor performance when registering multi-modal remote sensing images. The proposed modifications, collectively called MM-SIFT, have improved the reliability and robustness of the SIFT method for a variety of geometrical deformations (e.g., rotation, shear, scale, etc.) with multi-modal remote sensing images by a big margin. This improvement is verified on four sets of multi-modal images each containing several spectral bands.

  • (2012) Joseph, Vijai
    The bio-physical and social impacts of sea level rise and vulnerability of communities have been deliberated upon at length in various scientific studies. Less studied are the feedback mechanisms that influence vulnerability of the communities in a socio-ecological system in the context of sea level rise. The aim of this study is to develop a systems perspective of vulnerability of selected coastal occupational groups such as fishers, brackish pond farmers and labourers to sea level rise, which will help to uncover feedback mechanisms. The study area is the Demak regency of the Central Java province of Indonesia. This region is affected by hazards such as land subsidence, tidal floods and coastal erosion, which make it particularly vulnerable to rise in sea level. The sustainable livelihoods approach and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change framework (IPCC) on vulnerability provided a platform for the quantitative analysis of vulnerability of the occupational groups. The quantitative analysis of vulnerability was conducted to develop a snap-shot view of vulnerability of the occupational groups before an in-depth analysis into the complexity of feedback mechanisms that influence the vulnerability. Vulnerability indices of occupational groups to sea level rise were constructed by aggregating the indices of adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure components of the IPCC framework of vulnerability. Livelihood capitals were used as indicators of adaptive capacity. Subsequently, participatory rural appraisal techniques (PRA) including historical time line analysis, seasonality calendar, focus group discussions, daily routine analysis and resource mapping were employed to identify the feedback mechanisms in the whole socio-ecological system. These feedback mechanisms were illustrated using causal loop diagrams. A key contribution of this study is the use of the sustainable livelihoods framework, IPCC framework and qualitative system dynamics to improve the understanding of feedback mechanisms that influence the vulnerability of occupational groups. Complementary usage of PRA and categorical data to develop this understanding also contributes to the array of hybrid methodological approaches applied in the context of a socio-ecological system. The feedback mechanisms showed that vulnerability of the occupational groups in the study area is influenced by processes at multiple scales and revealed the increasing social vulnerability of the occupational groups due to the presence of undesirable feedback mechanisms. Key findings of the study include the identification of intervention points in the socio-ecological system such as coastal protection measures and various livelihood capitals, for initiating adaptive planning and actions. Additionally, vulnerability indices showed that fishers and brackish pond farmers were the most vulnerable to sea level rise, while labourers were better in terms of their vulnerability index values. The research has investigated the livelihood transitions of the occupational groups in the past and identified the drivers of transitions, which included lack of financial capital, decreasing natural capital, old age and other personal reasons. An adaptive planning framework is also proposed by the research to deliberate on the dynamics of the feedback mechanisms in the socio-ecological system of the villages under study. This approach of systems modelling of vulnerability can inform policy making for vulnerability reduction and adaptation in future scenarios of sea level rise, with due regard to the complexity and dynamics of the socio-ecological system of coastal communities.

  • (2012) Bartkowiak, Maciej
    Three compounds, SrTiO3, EuTiO3 and LuFe2O4, were studied using neutron, x-ray and computational techniques, in order to determine the extent and origins of their ferroic properties. SrTiO3 turns ferroelectric at T=23 K, when normal oxygen is replaced with a heavier isotope, oxygen-18. Samples of SrTiO3 substituted with oxygen-18 were prepared by high-temperature oxygen exchange and studied by diffraction experiments and incoherent neutron scattering. By combining the results of ab-initio calculations and the experiments, we determined that the ferroelectric phase transition of SrTiO3 is driven by soft phonon modes, and the stable structure of SrTiO3 has a low, monoclinic or triclinic, symmetry, resulting from an off-centre shift of Ti atoms combined with an alternating tilting of the TiO6 octahedra around the Ti off-centre displacement direction. An analogous compound, EuTiO3, was then studied using ab-initio calculations, supported by x-ray diffraction results. Although the structure of the compound displayed instabilities related to soft phonon modes, similar to SrTiO3, in EuTiO3 the tilting of the TiO6 octahedra occurred around the [111] direction, leading to a different final structure than in SrTiO3. Structural instabilities leading to a ferroelectric phase transition in EuTiO3 have been identified in the calculations. In LuFe2O4 the ferroelectric polarisation originates from charge order on Fe atoms. The charge order in LuFe2O4 was investigated using resonant x-ray diffraction. We found that Fe atoms are separated into Fe2+ and Fe3+ states throughout the studied temperature range. The increase in the ferroelectric polarisation of the compound, observed at the magnetic ordering temperature T=240 K, occurs as electron hopping in the system is inhibited by the onset of the magnetic order, and the charge-ordered domains increase in number and size. Overall, the study of the three compounds highlighted the importance of the dynamical phenomena in ferroelectric materials, showing that identification of the average structure of each of the compounds is insufficient to explain its electrical properties.

  • (2012) Kimura, Tomohiko
    This thesis focuses on the political and diplomatic history relating to Australian foreign policymaking towards the East Timor question during the Whitlam and Fraser governments, from April 1974 to January 1978. With reference to a number of published and unpublished Australian diplomatic records, a study of newspaper coverage (in particular, the Sydney Morning Herald, the Age and the Canberra Times), and also contemporary periodicals and personal memoirs, this thesis analyses the Australian foreign policymaking process towards Indonesia’s integration policy towards East Timor. Although the existing literature has tended to focus on Australian policymakers, notably Prime Minister Whitlam in collaboration with Ambassador to Indonesia Woolcott – who were mostly concerned with Australian relations with Indonesia and sought to avoid the outcome of a small independent East Timor in the neighbourhood – this research also pays attention to the contribution of other foreign policy actors, including Foreign Minister Willesee of the Whitlam government in consultation with Secretary Renouf, both of whom thought it necessary to take account of domestic opinion sympathetic to self-determination. Considering that the Department of Foreign Affairs was convinced of the need for a proper act of self-determination in Portuguese Timor from the beginning and accordingly advised Foreign Ministers Willesee and Peacock to issue official statements in support of the right of self-determination against the backdrop of mounting domestic opinion – in particular during the period from October 1975 to July 1976 – this thesis argues that the Department took a substantial role in foreign policymaking in an attempt to dissociate the Australian government from Indonesia’s coercive integration policy. In conclusion, despite the commonly-accepted view of the strong personal leadership of Prime Minister Whitlam who favoured Indonesia’s integration of East Timor, this thesis argues that his influence was not unlimited. It is essential to consider the role of dissenting public opinion which favoured an outcome based on the genuine will of the people in East Timor. A full picture of Australian foreign policymaking requires taking into account critics of Indonesian policy both inside and outside of the government.