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(1998) Walsh, Andrew; Burton, Michael; Robinson, Garry; Nyland, AJournal Article
(1999) Walsh, Andrew; Burton, Michael; Hyland, A; Robinson, GarryJournal ArticleA survey towards a selection of 35 methanol maser and/or ultracompact (UC) H ii regions, reported in Papers I and II and by Norris et al., has been conducted in the near-infrared (NIR). Out of 25 methanol maser sites surveyed, 12 are associated with a NIR counterpart. Out of 18 UC H ii regions (8 of which overlap with maser emission), 12 are associated with a NIR counterpart. Counterparts can be confidently identified not only by the positional agreements, but also by their unusually red colours. Spectral types for the embedded stars can be unambiguously determined for six sources, all of which imply massive, ionizing stars. One of these infrared sources has methanol maser emission, but no UC H ii region. It is possible that the maser emission associated with this source arises from a pre-UC H ii phase of massive stellar evolution or it could be that nearly all the ultraviolet photons are absorbed by dust within the UC H ii region. We have modelled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for some sources and find that a single blackbody can be used to estimate the stellar luminosity, but cannot represent the whole infrared SED. A two-component blackbody model and a radiative transfer model were also used to derive essential parameters of the infrared sources. The radiative transfer model also indicates which infrared sources are relatively young and which are older. Both models show that silicate absorption at 9.7 μm must be a dominant feature of these SEDs.
(2001) Malomed, Boris; Peng, Gang-Ding; Chu, Pak; Towers, Isaac; Buryak, Alexander; Sammut, RowlandJournal ArticleWe present a review of new results which suggest the existence of fully stable spinning solitons (self-supporting localised objects with an internal vorticity) in optical fibres with selffocusing Kerr (cubic) nonlinearity, and in bulk media featuring a combination of the cubic selfdefocusing and quadratic nonlinearities. Their distinctive difference from other optical solitons with an internal vorticity, which were recently studied in various optical media, theoretically and also experimentally, is that all the spinning solitons considered thus far have been found to be unstable against azimuthal perturbations. In the first part of the paper, we consider solitons in a nonlinear optical fibre in a region of parameters where the fibre carries exactly two distinct modes, viz., the fundamental one and the first-order helical mode. From the viewpoint of application to communication systems, this opens the way to doubling the number of channels carried by a fibre. Besides that, these solitons are objects of fundamental interest. To fully examine their stability, it is crucially important to consider collisions between them, and their collisions with fundamental solitons, in (ordinary or hollow) optical fibres. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear Schr¨ odinger equations for the fundamental and helical modes with nonstandard values of the cross-phase-modulation coupling constants, and show, in analytical and numerical forms, results of collisions between solitons carried by the two modes. In the second part of the paper, we demonstrate that the interaction of the fundamental beam with its second harmonic in bulk media, in the presence of self-defocusing Kerr nonlinearity, gives rise to the first ever example of completely stable spatial ring-shaped solitons with intrinsic vorticity. The stability is demonstrated both by direct simulations and by analysis of linearized equations.
(2000) Turner, Ian; Leyden, Vincent; Symonds, Graham; McGrath, J; Jackson, AConference Paper
Shoreline response to multi-functional artificial surfing reefs: A numerical and physical modelling study(2006) Ranasinghe, Roshanka; Turner, Ian; Symonds, GrahamJournal ArticleThe results of a series of 2DH numerical and 3D scaled physical modelling tests indicate that processes governing shoreline response to submerged structures, such as artificial surfing reefs, are different from those associated with emergent offshore breakwaters. Unlike the case of emergent offshore breakwaters, where shoreline accretion (salient development) is expected under all structural/environmental conditions, the principal mode of shoreline response to submerged structures can vary between erosive and accretive, depending on the offshore distance to the structure. The predominant wave incidence angle and structure crest level also have important implications on the magnitude of shoreline response, but not on the mode of shoreline response (i.e. erosion vs. accretion). Based on the results obtained here, a predictive empirical relationship is proposed as a preliminary engineering tool to assess shoreline response to submerged structures. Crown Copyright (C) 2006 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.