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  • (2007) Bandyopadhyay, Srikanta; Bhowmick, A.K.; Samudrala, S.K; Gupta, S.K; Seal, S.
    Book Chapter
    Bandyopadhyay, S., *Bhowmick, AK., Samudrala, SK. & Gupta, SK.

  • (2009) Grulich, Andrew; Templeton, David; Jin, Feng Yi; Prestage, Garrett; Donovan, Basil; Imrie, John; Kippax, Susan; Cunningham, Philip; Kaldor, John; Mindel, Adrian; Cunningham, Anthony
    Journal Article
    BACKGROUND: Circumcision status was examined as an independent risk factor for sexually transmissible infections (STIs) in the Health in Men cohort of homosexual men in Sydney. METHODS: From 2001 through 2004, 1427 initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative men were enrolled and followed up until mid-2007. All participants were offered annual STI testing. The history of STIs was collected at baseline, and information on sexual risk behaviors was collected every 6 months. At annual face-to-face visits, participants reported STI diagnoses received during the previous year. RESULTS: Circumcision was not associated with prevalent or incident herpes simplex virus 1, herpes simplex virus 2, or self-reported genital warts. There was also no independent association of circumcision with incident urethral gonorrhea or chlamydia. Being circumcised was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.84]) but not prevalent (odds ratio, 0.71 [95% confidence interval, 0.35-1.44]) syphilis. The association was somewhat stronger among men who reported predominantly insertive unprotected anal intercourse (hazard ratio, 0.10 [95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.82]). CONCLUSIONS: These are the first prospective data obtained from homosexual men to assess circumcision status as a risk factor for STIs. Circumcised men were at reduced risk of incident syphilis but no other prevalent or incident STIs. Circumcision is unlikely to have a substantial public health impact in reducing acquisition of most STIs in homosexual men.

  • (2005) Cranney, Jacquelyn; Kofod, Michelle; Huon, Gail; Jensen, Lene; Levin, Kirsty; McAlpine, Iain; Whitaker, Noel
    Conference Paper

  • (2006) Maldonado, D.; Zulli, P.; Guo, Baoyu; Yu, Aibing
    Conference Paper
    The erosion of hearth refractories typically governs the asset life of a blast furnace. Since operating conditions within the hearth make it practically impossible for direct measurement and visualisation, physical and mathematical models play an important role in understanding and assessing the cause-effect phenomena between the liquid iron, coke bed and refractories. A numerical model has been developed to predict the iron flow and temperature distribution within the packed bed and refractories. A number of case studies have been investigated for Port Kembla's No. 5 blast furnace, which is entering the 15th year of its current campaign. These case studies considered the effects of coke free layers (floating/sitting deadman), hearth deposits, coke bed fouling and localised refractory erosion. The refractory temperature distributions predicted by the model compare well with the blast furnace thermocouple measurements and as a result, the model has become a valuable predictive tool for hearth design and control.