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Expert perspectives on the contribution of HIV general practice nursing to the ‘extraordinary story’ of HIV medicine in Australia(2014) Hopwood, Max; Newman, Christy; Persson, Asha; Watts, Ian; Reynolds, Robert; Canavan, Peter; Kippax, Susan; Kidd, MichaelJournal ArticleAim: This paper explores cultural and professional dynamics of HIV general practice nursing in Australia. It highlights specific contributions that HIV general practice nurses make to HIV medicine and considers how nurses’ clinical practice has been shaped by past experiences of the AIDS crisis and subsequent developments in HIV medicine. Background: In international contexts, nurses in HIV medicine commonly work as part of shared-care teams. In recent years, HIV general practice nursing has become a prioritised area for primary health care in Australia. Methods: Data for this analysis were drawn from 45 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with nurses and general practitioners (GPs) who provide HIV care in general practice, and key informants who work in policy, advocacy or education and training of the HIV general practice workforce. Findings: Viewed through a socio-ecological framework of social capital, descriptive content analysis highlights a unique and strong HIV health professional identity, which emerged out of the adverse conditions experienced by nurses, GPs and allied health professionals during the 1980s AIDS crisis. Participants reported that today, HIV general practice nursing includes information provision, HIV treatment side-effect management, teaching patients methods to increase adherence to HIV treatments and capacity building with allied health professionals. Participants reported that HIV general practice nurses can reduce the clinical burden on GPs, ameliorate patients’ exposure to HIV health care-related stigma and discrimination and facilitate the emergence of a comprehensive and personalised model of shared primary health care based on trust and rapport, which is desired by people with HIV. This study’s findings support the future expansion of the role of HIV general practice nurses in Australia and internationally. General practice nursing will become increasingly important in the scaling up of HIV testing and in caring for increasing numbers of people living with HIV.
(2014) Newman, Christy; de Wit, John; Crooks, Levinia; Reynolds, Robert; Canavan, Peter; Kidd, MichaelJournal ArticleAs the management of HIV changes and demand for HIV health services in primary care settings increases, new approaches to engaging the general practice workforce with HIV medicine are required. This paper reports on qualitative research conducted with 47 clinicians who provide HIV care in general practice settings around Australia, including accredited HIV s100 prescribers as well as other GPs and general practice nurses. Balanced numbers of men and women took part; less than a quarter were based outside of urban metropolitan settings. The most significant workforce challenges that participants said they faced in providing HIV care in general practice were keeping up with knowledge, navigating low caseload and regional issues, balancing quality care with cost factors, and addressing the persistent social stigma associated with HIV. Strategic responses developed by participants to address these challenges included thinking more creatively about business and caseload planning, pursuing opportunities to share care with specialist clinicians, and challenging prejudiced attitudes amongst patients and colleagues. Understanding and supporting the needs of the general practice workforce in both high and low HIV caseload settings will be essential in ensuring Australia has the capacity to respond to emerging priorities in HIV prevention and care.
Circumcision and risk of sexually transmissible infections in a community-based cohort of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia(2009) Grulich, Andrew; Templeton, David; Jin, Feng Yi; Prestage, Garrett; Donovan, Basil; Imrie, John; Kippax, Susan; Cunningham, Philip; Kaldor, John; Mindel, Adrian; Cunningham, AnthonyJournal ArticleBACKGROUND: Circumcision status was examined as an independent risk factor for sexually transmissible infections (STIs) in the Health in Men cohort of homosexual men in Sydney. METHODS: From 2001 through 2004, 1427 initially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative men were enrolled and followed up until mid-2007. All participants were offered annual STI testing. The history of STIs was collected at baseline, and information on sexual risk behaviors was collected every 6 months. At annual face-to-face visits, participants reported STI diagnoses received during the previous year. RESULTS: Circumcision was not associated with prevalent or incident herpes simplex virus 1, herpes simplex virus 2, or self-reported genital warts. There was also no independent association of circumcision with incident urethral gonorrhea or chlamydia. Being circumcised was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.84]) but not prevalent (odds ratio, 0.71 [95% confidence interval, 0.35-1.44]) syphilis. The association was somewhat stronger among men who reported predominantly insertive unprotected anal intercourse (hazard ratio, 0.10 [95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.82]). CONCLUSIONS: These are the first prospective data obtained from homosexual men to assess circumcision status as a risk factor for STIs. Circumcised men were at reduced risk of incident syphilis but no other prevalent or incident STIs. Circumcision is unlikely to have a substantial public health impact in reducing acquisition of most STIs in homosexual men.
(2001) Knox, S; Van De Ven, Paul; Prestage, Garrett; Crawford, J; Grulich, Andrew; Kippax, SusanJournal Article