Other UNSW

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  • (2014) Hopwood, Max; Newman, Christy; Persson, Asha; Watts, Ian; Reynolds, Robert; Canavan, Peter; Kippax, Susan; Kidd, Michael
    Journal Article
    Aim: This paper explores cultural and professional dynamics of HIV general practice nursing in Australia. It highlights specific contributions that HIV general practice nurses make to HIV medicine and considers how nurses’ clinical practice has been shaped by past experiences of the AIDS crisis and subsequent developments in HIV medicine. Background: In international contexts, nurses in HIV medicine commonly work as part of shared-care teams. In recent years, HIV general practice nursing has become a prioritised area for primary health care in Australia. Methods: Data for this analysis were drawn from 45 in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted with nurses and general practitioners (GPs) who provide HIV care in general practice, and key informants who work in policy, advocacy or education and training of the HIV general practice workforce. Findings: Viewed through a socio-ecological framework of social capital, descriptive content analysis highlights a unique and strong HIV health professional identity, which emerged out of the adverse conditions experienced by nurses, GPs and allied health professionals during the 1980s AIDS crisis. Participants reported that today, HIV general practice nursing includes information provision, HIV treatment side-effect management, teaching patients methods to increase adherence to HIV treatments and capacity building with allied health professionals. Participants reported that HIV general practice nurses can reduce the clinical burden on GPs, ameliorate patients’ exposure to HIV health care-related stigma and discrimination and facilitate the emergence of a comprehensive and personalised model of shared primary health care based on trust and rapport, which is desired by people with HIV. This study’s findings support the future expansion of the role of HIV general practice nurses in Australia and internationally. General practice nursing will become increasingly important in the scaling up of HIV testing and in caring for increasing numbers of people living with HIV.

  • (2014) Anderson, Amy; Hure, A; Forder, P; Powers, J; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Loxton, D
    Journal Article

  • (2014) Lorenz, Ruth; Pitman, Andrew; Donat, Markus; Hirsch, Annette; Kala, Jatin; Kowalczyk, E; Law, R; Srbinovsky, J
    Journal Article
    Climate extremes, such as heat waves and heavy precipitation events, have large impacts on ecosystems and societies. Climate models provide useful tools for studying underlying processes and amplifying effects associated with extremes. The Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) has recently been coupled to the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. We examine how this model represents climate extremes derived by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and compare them to observational data sets using the AMIP framework. We find that the patterns of extreme indices are generally well represented. Indices based on percentiles are particularly well represented and capture the trends over the last 60 years shown by the observations remarkably well. The diurnal temperature range is underestimated, minimum temperatures (T-MIN) during nights are generally too warm and daily maximum temperatures (T-MAX) too low in the model. The number of consecutive wet days is overestimated, while consecutive dry days are underestimated. The maximum consecutive 1-day precipitation amount is underestimated on the global scale. Biases in T-MIN correlate well with biases in incoming longwave radiation, suggesting a relationship with biases in cloud cover. Biases in T-MAX depend on biases in net shortwave radiation as well as evapotranspiration. The regions and season where the bias in evapotranspiration plays a role for the T-MAX bias correspond to regions and seasons where soil moisture availability is limited. Our analysis provides the foundation for future experiments that will examine how land-surface processes contribute to these systematic biases in the ACCESS modelling system.