Engineering

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 40
  • (1996) Sproul, Alistair; Edminston, Sean; Puzzer, Tom; Heiser, Gernot; Wenham, Stuart; Green, Martin; Young, Timothy
    Conference Paper
    An analytical model is developed to decribe recombination currents arising from recombination at grain boundaries (GBs) in the depletion region of a p-n junction solar cell. Grain boundaries are modelled as having a single energy evel in the energy gap, and partial occupancy of these stats gives raise to a chage on the GB. The analytical model is compared to a complete numerical simulation package (DESSIS) and found to be in excellent agreement. Additionally,. cross sectional EBIC images of a multilayer device containing vertical GBs are presented. The experimental data is comared qualitatively with results derived from numerical modelling.

  • (1996) Altermatt, Peter; Heiser, Gernot; Dai, Ximing; Jurgens, J; Aberle, Armin; Robinson, Steven J.; Young, Timothy; Wenham, Stuart; Green, Martin
    Journal Article
    The passivated emitter, rear locally diffused (PERL) cells, fabricated in our laboratory, reach an efficiency of 24.0%, the highest value for any silicon-based solar cell under terrestrial illumination. In an attempt to improve the rear surface passivation, which is usually obtained by a thermally grown oxide, we add a floating (i.e., noncontacted) p-n junction at the rear surface, resulting in the passivated emitter, rear floating p-n junction (PERF) cell design. Although these cells exhibit record 1-sun open-circuit voltages of up to 720 mV, their efficiency is degraded by nonlinearities ("shoulders") in the logarithmic I-V curves. In order to understand and manipulate such nonlinearities, this paper presents a detailed investigation of the internal operation of PERF cells by means of numerical modelling based on experimentally determined device parameters. From the model, we derive design rules for optimum cell performance and develop a generalized argumentation that is suitable to compare the passivation properties of different surface structures. For example, the oxidized rear surface of the PERL cell is treated as an electrostatically induced floating junction in this approach and analogies to the diffused floating p-n junction are drawn. Our simulations indicate that optimum rear surface passivation can be obtained in three different ways. (i) The floating junction of the PERF cell should be very lightly doped, resulting in a sheet resistivity of 5000 Omega/[D'Alembertian], and losses due to shunt leaking paths between the p-n junction and the rear metal contacts must be avoided. (ii) The rear surface of the PERL cell should be passivated by chemical vapor deposition of a silicon nitride film containing a larger positive interface charge density than exists in thermally grown oxides. (iii) An external gate can be added at the rear with low leakage currents and gate voltages of around 15 V.

  • (2008) Power, M; Marlon, J; Ortiz, N; Bartlein, P; Harrison, Simon; Mayle, F; Ballouche, A; Bradshaw, R; Carcaillet, C; Cordova, C; Mooney, Scott; Moreno, P; Prentice, I; Thonicke, K; Tinner, W; Whitlock, C; Zhang, Yanling; Zhao, Yong; Ali, Amna; Anderson, Richard; Beer, R; Behling, H; Briles, C; Brown, Katherine; Brunelle, A; Bush, M; Camill, P; Chu, G; Clark, J; Colombaroli, D; Connor, Stuart; Daniau, A; Daniels, M; Dodson, John; Doughty, E; Edwards, Meredith; Finsinger, W; Foster, Douglas; Frechette, J; Gaillard, M; Gavin, D; Gobet, E; Haberle, Simon; Hallett, D; Higuera, P; Hope, G; Horn, S; Inoue, J; Kaltenrieder, P; Kennedy, Liz; Kong, Z; Larsen, C; Long, C; Lynch, Jodi; Lynch, E; McGlone, M; Meeks, S; Mensing, S; Meyer, G; Minckley, T; Mohr, J; Nelson, D; New, J; Newnham, R; Noti, R; Oswald, W; Pierce, J; Richard, P; Rowe, C; Goni, M; Shuman, B; Takahara, H; Toney, J; Turney, C; Urrego-Sanchez, D; Umbanhowar, C; Vandergoes, M; Vanniere, B; Vescovi, E
    Journal Article
    Fire activity has varied globally and continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM) in response to long-term changes in global climate and shorter-term regional changes in climate, vegetation, and human land use. We have synthesized sedimentary charcoal records of biomass burning since the LGM and present global maps showing changes in fire activity for time slices during the past 21,000 years (as differences in charcoal accumulation values compared to pre-industrial). There is strong broad-scale coherence in fire activity after the LGM, but spatial heterogeneity in the signals increases thereafter. In North America, Europe and southern South America, charcoal records indicate less-than-present fire activity during the deglacial period, from 21,000 to ∼11,000 cal yr BP. In contrast, the tropical latitudes of South America and Africa show greater-than-present fire activity from ∼19,000 to ∼17,000 cal yr BP and most sites from Indochina and Australia show greater-than-present fire activity from 16,000 to ∼13,000 cal yr BP. Many sites indicate greater-than-present or near-present activity during the Holocene with the exception of eastern North America and eastern Asia from 8,000 to ∼3,000 cal yr BP, Indonesia and Australia from 11,000 to 4,000 cal yr BP, and southern South America from 6,000 to 3,000 cal yr BP where fire activity was less than present. Regional coherence in the patterns of change in fire activity was evident throughout the post-glacial period. These complex patterns can largely be explained in terms of large-scale climate controls modulated by local changes in vegetation and fuel load.

  • (2008) Yang, Xihua; Yang, Yaohua; He, W; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Zhao, Yong
    Journal Article
    Two-phase composites La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Ta2O5 are synthesized and their magnetization and low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) characteristics are investigated. It is found that a small amount of Ta ions enter into LSMO grains near the grain surface region, resulting in the reduction of the cell volume, and consequently, an extra reduction of the saturate magnetization. The paramagnetism-to-ferromagnetism transition temperature, TC, does not show significant change. The LFMR enhancement is observed over a wide range of temperature from 50 to 350K when the second phase material (Ta2O5) is introduced. The magnetic disorder caused by the secondary phase at grain boundaries and the Ta doping effect on the surface of LSMO grains are believed to contribute to the enhanced MR.

  • (2004) Cohen, David; Waite, David
    Journal Article
    Interaction of aqueous Au species with goethite, smectite and kaolinite


  • (2003) Desmier, Rosalind; Dixon, J; Macdonald, Ben; Melville, Michael; Waite, David
    Conference Paper

  • (2003) White, Ian; Van Oploo, Pamela; Waite, David
    Journal Article

  • (2005) Howard, Elizabeth; Turner, Ian; Merton, Raymond
    Conference Paper

  • (2004) Howard, Elizabeth; Turner, Ian; Merton, Raymond
    Conference Paper