Engineering

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 21
  • (2022) Shahriari, Siroos
    Thesis
    Time series models are used to model, simulate, and forecast the behaviour of a phenomenon over time based on data recorded over consistent intervals. The digital era has resulted in data being captured and archived in unprecedented amounts, such that vast amounts of information are available for analysis. Feature-rich time-series datasets are one of the data sets that have become available due to the expanding trend of data collection technologies worldwide. With the application of time series analysis to support financial and managerial decision-making, the development and advancement of time series models in the transportation domain are unavoidable. As a result, this thesis redefines time series models for transportation planning use with the following three aims: (1) To combine parametric and bootstrapping techniques within time series models; (2) to develop a time series model capable of modelling both temporal and spatial dependencies in time-series data; and (3) to leverage the hierarchical Bayesian modelling paradigm to accommodate flexible representations of heterogeneity in data. The first main chapter introduces an ensemble of ARIMA models. It compares its performance against conventional ARIMA (a parametric method) and LSTM models (a non-parametric method) for short-term traffic volume prediction. The second main chapter introduces a copula time series model that describes correlations between variables through time and space. Temporal correlations are modelled by an ARMA-GARCH model which enables a modeller to describe heteroscedastic data. The copula model has a flexible correlation structure and is used to model spatial correlations with the ability to model nonlinear, tailed and asymmetric correlations. The third main chapter provides a Bayesian modelling framework to raise awareness about using hierarchical Bayesian approaches for transport time series data. In addition, this chapter presents a Bayesian copula model. The combination of the two models provides a fully Bayesian approach to modelling both temporal and spatial correlations. Compared with frequentist models, the proposed modelling structures can incorporate prior knowledge. In the fourth main chapter, the fully Bayesian model is used to investigate mobility patterns before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic using social media data. A more focused analysis is conducted on the mobility patterns of Twitter users from different zones and land use types.

  • (2022) Nguyen, Minh Triet
    Thesis
    Singlet fission is a photo-physical process that generates two triplet excitons from one singlet exciton and can potentially enhance efficiency in photovoltaic systems. The combination of photovoltaics and singlet fission is a novel field for solar energy conversion when there is much interest in renewable, non-destructive, and continuously available energy sources. Singlet fission can also overcome thermalization losses in photovoltaics, which happens in traditional cells when the incident photon energy is higher than the silicon bandgap energy, using a carrier multiplication mechanism. This thesis will design, construct, and characterize photovoltaic devices incorporating singlet fission materials to study singlet fission in practical application. The research focuses on materials characterization, spin dynamics, and electron transfers between acene and the semiconductor layer in Au/TiO2 ballistic cells, and the incorporation of singlet fission layers on silicon-based cell structures. In detail, a set of investigations was developed and summarized by implementing singlet fission materials into a state-of-the-art ballistic photovoltaic device and silicon-based solar cell. The studies demonstrate proof of concept and rationally explain the process. The first part of the thesis investigates thin films of pentacene, TIPS-pentacene, and tetracene via crystallinity, morphology, absorption, and thickness characterization. Additionally, Au and TiO2 layers in Schottky device structures were optimized to achieve the best performance for energy transfer from an applied dye layer (merbromin). The drop-casted dye layer influences the device performance by increasing short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, demonstrating the ability of charge transfer between the device and the applied film. This device structure provides a test bed for studying charge and energy transfer from singlet fission films. The latter part of the thesis describes several investigations to understand singlet fission in a thin film using this architecture. Magneto-photoconductivity measurements were primarily used to observe the spin dynamics via photoconductivity under an external magnetic field. Control experiments with bare Au/TiO2 devices showed no observable magneto-photoconductivity signal. In contrast, devices with pentacene and tetracene singlet fission layers showed a strong magnetoconductivity effect caused by ballistic electron transfer from the singlet fission layer into the TiO2 n-type semiconductor through an ultra-thin gold layer inserted between the layers. A qualitatively different behavior is seen between the pentacene and tetracene, which reveals that the energy alignment plays a crucial part in the charge transfer between the singlet fission layer and the device. The last section investigates the application of pentacene and tetracene evaporated thin-films as sensitizer layers to a silicon-based solar cell. The optimized Si cell structure with the annealing treatment improved the cell's performance by increasing short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage. The deposition of pentacene and tetracene as sensitizer layers into the device showed some results but posed several challenges that need to be addressed. As the current-voltage and external quantum efficiency measurements were taken, it was observed that material interfaces need to be designed to fully achieve the singlet fission of the acene layer into the Si devices.

  • (2022) Saavedra Moreno, Yesenia
    Thesis
    Frothers are widely used in flotation to primarily generate air bubbles, aid gas dispersion, and form a stable froth that provides a selective separation of particles. The current frother classification approaches are based on only three characteristics of the frothers. A number of studies have reported the use of characteristics of frothers including critical coalescence concentration and the ability to create an effective foam under dynamic conditions, as well as foam stability to group frothers. Moreover, the majority of studies are based on a two-phase system, ignoring to some extent the effect of particles, which is relevant to flotation. This thesis explores the effect of frother type on foam stability under dynamic and static conditions and provides a framework to classify frothers based on their foam generation ability. Three foam stability variables, dynamic foam stability index, static foam stability index, and decay rate index are quantified for eighteen different frothers. Four more frothers characteristics reported in the literature, MW, HLB, CCC, DL were defined. The hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to group frothers based on similarity and provide a category system. Based on the similarities, frothers were grouped into four categories as opposed to the binary frother classification reported in the literature. The selectivity of frothers increases from Group 1 to Group 4, whereas frothers decrease their powerfulness from Group 1 to Group 4. To complement the proposed frother classification and assess the relevance to flotation, the effect of particles on the foam generation under dynamic conditions was explored for four frothers from different families. In terms of froth stability, the three-phase system showed a similar frother ranking to the two-phase system, except that TPG behaved as a more powerful frother in the presence of hydrophobic particles than MIBC. It was also found that the proposed frother classification system in a two-phase system translates well to the three-phase system as frothers were clustered in the same groups. Further insight into the changes of foam stability was gained by simulating the coalescence of two air bubbles at various frother concentrations using the volume of fluid method (VOF). It was observed that an increase in frother concentration damped the oscillation of coalesced bubbles by the surface elasticity, suggesting that the bubble surface area moves at a lower velocity, which may reduce the motion of particles attached to the interface and consequently, their detachment during the merging of two bubbles.

  • (2022) Idris, Nur Fadhilah
    Thesis
    Odours from the drying process at rubber processing plants have been identified as a major malodour contributor. The increasing number of complaints from these operations has resulted in the suspension and/or shutdown due to environmental impacts by local communities. Previous studies have indicated that packed-bed wet scrubber typically adopted as an odour abatement technology is ineffective at treating odours from these plants. Literature review reveals there is various chemical groups of volatile organic compounds emitted from the raw rubber processing. To date, no comprehensive analytical study was conducted on the effectiveness of wet scrubber in removing the VOCs. This research aims to understand the composition of VOCs emitted at full-scale drying processes in Malaysian rubber processing plants in terms of their chemical composition and sensorial profile. This led to the identification of key odorants responsible for the malodour issue. The wet scrubber performance to remove the VOCs was investigated as well as the operation optimisation to improve its performance. The adsorption by activated carbon was explored as a potential secondary treatment to improve the overall VOCs removal for emissions from rubber drying processes. Lastly, the sustainability of all options to upgrade the wet scrubber system was studied. The VOCs emissions samplings were performed at two typical commercial rubber processing plants in Malaysia. VOCs samplings were collected at both inlet and outlet of the wet scrubbers using a nalpohan bag attached to a vacuum drum and subsequently transferred to sorbent tubes at dry and wet seasons as well as at different operational times. The VOCs quantification was performed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Additionally, the presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was determined using a H2S analyzer (Jerome 631-X) in one of the sampling periods. For the optimisation, the design and operating conditions of one of the plants were used in simulation and experimental studies. Meanwhile, the adsorption behaviour of selected VOCs was investigated on two types of virgin activated carbon (AC) namely coconut-based AC (CSAC) and palm kernel-based AC (PKSAC) manufactured in Malaysia. The ACs were characterised accordingly to determine their surface characteristics. The environmental impact of the proposed improved odour abatement technologies was compared by Life cycle Assessment (LCA). A total of 80 VOCs from various chemical functional groups was frequently detected by GC-MS/O with 11 new compounds not previously reported. 50 % of the chemical concentration of the emissions was dominated by the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and 16 critical VOCs were identified including key odorants. H2S was detected in the emissions and potentially contributes to the odour impact. The composition of the emissions was observed to be influenced by the seasonal variation in terms of the number of VOCs detected for each season. Odour wheels were developed for the first time based on the sensory analysis of full-scale rubber emission before and after treatment by the wet scrubber as a management tool for on-site plant operators and regulatory authorities to assess the malodour impact on surrounding communities. The performance analysis of the existing wet scrubber technology revealed that it was ineffective at removing VOCs, indicated by the high chemical concentration and odour activity value (OAV) detected at the outlet emissions of the wet scrubber except for single-chain VFAs. The comparable odour categories and the number of sensory-related VOCs in both inlet and outlet emissions further revealed the wet scrubber’s poor sensory removal. The wet season observed a higher wet scrubber performance because of the greater VFAs concentration detected in the emissions. However, the wet scrubber is not suitable to remove the H2S due to its poor and inconsistent removal. The study demonstrated that the combination of sensory and quantitative analysis improved the accuracy to identify the odorants from rubber emissions and investigated wet scrubber poor performance. The simulation study revealed that the performance of the wet scrubber can be optimised (> 80 % chemical concentration removal) by modification of some of the operating conditions, namely the application of a higher liquid/gas ratio and greater interfacial area of packing to remove water-soluble VOCs and subsequently, reduce the odour impact (> 90 % OAV reduction). Laboratory-scale optimisation experiments demonstrated that the VOCs solubility is highly correlated with their absorption efficiency. Furthermore, the absorption of the VOCs is best at higher gas temperature (> 45 C) and low liquid temperature (< 10 C). The experimental results show the condition in the gas phase has a greater influence on the removal efficiency compared to the liquid condition. Optimal removal of the key odorants and other critical VOCs at this stage is necessary to minimise the odour impact and organic loading before subsequent treatment. The adsorption by activated carbon has the potential to be incorporated as a secondary treatment to remove the remaining low water-soluble VOCs that are inefficient to be removed by the wet scrubber. The boiling point of the VOCs was found to be the primary factor that influences AC adsorption behaviour whereas polarity and molecular structure were secondary factors. The emissions consist of multi-component VOCs, an adsorption competition has been observed where higher boiling point VOCs have a stronger affinity with the AC and displace the weaker adsorbed lower boiling point VOCs. The presence of high relative humidity (RH >70 %) was found to shorten the breakthrough times greatly and adversely affect the AC adsorption performance. The breakthrough of VOCs categorised as odorant is more critical because of the greater odour impact contribution than its chemical concentration. CSAC demonstrated greater adsorption capacity (average 38 %) than PKSAC (average 11 %) due to the different surface characteristics. However, both ACs showed comparable adsorption behaviour. Therefore, AC adsorption could be employed as a polishing (or secondary) stage after full-scale wet scrubber abatement to improve the overall odour mitigation from rubber drying processes. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed on the existing wet scrubber (WS), optimised wet scrubber (OWS) and a hybrid of the optimised wet scrubber with activated carbon (OWS+AC) at full-scale operation. It was found that the impact of malodorous emissions was the greatest for the direct emissions (> 99 %) of WS due to its lower efficiency in removing the malodour. 3-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanoic acid have the greatest contribution from the direct emission of WS whereas H2S has a greater contribution from additional components used in OWS and OWS+AC. Electricity was found to be a major contributor to global warming and either ozone formation or human health potential impact categories with the increasing trend in WS, OWS and hybrid OWS+AC, accordingly. Meanwhile, the upgrading of the wet scrubber has also impacted the operational cost. In general, the environmental impact contributed by WS primarily came from direct emissions whereas the whole supply chain of OWS and hybrid OWS+AC has a greater environmental impact than their direct emissions. Nevertheless, the application of renewable energy is a good option to reduce the environmental impact.

  • (2020) O'Neill, Daniel
    Thesis
    This thesis examines the impacts of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology on residential microgrid environments. EVs are rapidly growing technology which play a major role in lowering Greenhouse-gas emissions in the transport sector. Additionally, EVs can also reduce emissions in the energy sector while also improving grid stability. This can be implemented by V2G technology supporting variable renewable generation (as additional storage) and by providing ancillary services. While some studies have presented specific instances of V2G implementation, long-term operation of the technology is still not well researched. Past research indicated financial barriers and availability as concerns which deter the implementation of V2G. Recent advancements in battery technology present new opportunities to make the technology viable. Using current and predicted EV technology trends, new EV load and V2G availability profiles were developed and used to evaluate the long-term operation and benefits of EVs and V2G in a residential microgrid environment. Simulation results indicate that the operation of V2G in a microgrid environment improves the economic operation of the system and reduces the levelized cost of energy by up to 5.7%. These results suggest the latest advancements in EV technology have improved the economic viability of V2G as well as its potential for further improving grid efficiency by providing energy services like peak demand shaving and additional storage capacity.

  • (2023) Chai, Qingmian
    Thesis
    Traditional passive distribution networks can not sufficiently handle the voltage stability issues brought by the increasingly integrated PV systems, while an active distribution network, which features active management of distributed energy resources, can flexibly utilise PV inverters to provide a volt/var control (VVC) function to regulate the network voltage. However, PV inverters are vulnerable power electronics devices and utilising them for additional VVC support can further degrade their reliability, leading to shortened inverter lifetime and impaired economic benefits. In this regard, the thesis focuses on addressing the PV inverter reliability issues in VVC methods, via assessing the PV inverter reliability in VVC and proposing advanced PV inverter based VVC methods considering inverter reliability enhancement. The thesis consists of four stages of my research. Firstly, a comprehensive PV inverter reliability assessment approach is developed to evaluate inverter lifetime when used for VVC functions, and the impacts of the PV inverter based VVC on inverter lifetime are successfully quantified. Secondly, a PV inverter reliability constrained VVC method is proposed in which the constraints to enhance inverter reliability are developed with a restriction factor to regulate inverter apparent power outputs. This method can efficiently minimise network power loss and curtailed PV power, while guaranteeing long inverter lifetime. Thirdly, a PV inverter reliability constrained VVC approach with power smoothing is proposed, in which an inverter power smoothing scheme with high control flexibility is developed by utilising a power smoothing factor to constrict variations of inverter apparent power outputs. Additionally, a penalty convex-concave procedure (CCP) solution method is developed to solve the non-convex optimisation problem with high computing efficiency. Fourthly, a multi-objective PV inverter based VVC method is proposed to simultaneously minimise network power loss and inverter apparent power output, and a Pareto front analysis method is developed to select a solution to achieve efficient power loss reduction with expected inverter lifetime. All the proposed methods apply advanced network operating models and optimisation methods to address uncertainties. These methods have been successfully demonstrated and tested through comprehensive case studies, and numerical simulation results verified the feasibility and high efficiency of the proposed methods.

  • (2023) Merhebi, Salma
    Thesis
    Liquid metals are fast becoming a new class of materials and additives for composites synthesis. In particular, gallium (Ga) and Ga-based liquid metal and alloys exhibit fluidity and frictionless behaviours along with metallic conductivity properties. Liquid metals based on Ga also present low-toxicity and can be readily formed into micro and nanodroplets or utilised in the bulk as conductive liquid substrates. The resulting Ga-based composites present novel physio-chemical behaviours and multifunctional properties that remain to be explored for a range of applications. In this PhD thesis, the author investigates three liquid metal/polymer composite systems synthesised with low toxicity input materials for remote magnetic actuation, ionic sensing and separation, and cell electrostimulation capabilities. In the first project, the author aims to develop conductive and magnetic liquid metal polymeric gels. Electrically and magnetic conductive nanodroplets of Ga-based alloys are in-situ synthesised in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution using mild mechanical agitation methods. The resulting conductive and magnetic gels show additional self-healing properties and demonstrate great potential for the design of soft electronic systems and robotics. For the second project, Ga-based composites are investigated for the sensing and separation of alkali metal ions. Nanodroplets of Ga-based alloys embedded into a crosslinked PVA flat-sheet composite provide selectivity and sensing capability and stability in mixed ionic alkali metal solutions. The Ga-based flat-sheet composite has implications for the efficient and low-energy recovery of lithium ions from brines. In the third project, conductive liquid metal polymer composites are prepared for cell culture and electrostimulation. The composite substrates are composed of bulk Ga coated with polydopamine (PDA) to enhance cell adhesion capability. The Ga/PDA composites surfaces show high biocompatibility for cell culture. With added electrical stimulation protocols, the proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is promoted. The conductive and biocompatible substrates lead to the use of liquid metals in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Collectively, the findings presented in this thesis provide deep insights and scientific findings for future research directions in the field of liquid metal-based composites for multifunctional materials in soft electronics, separation and sensing, and biomaterials.

  • (2021) Gnanasambandapillai, Vikkitharan
    Thesis
    “The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition” [56]. Genomics (the study of the entire DNA) provides such a standard of health for people with rare diseases and helps control the spread of pandemics. Still, millions of human beings are unable to access genomics due to its cost, and portability. In genomics, DNA sequencers digitise DNA information, and computers analyse the digitised information. We have desktop and thumb-sized DNA sequencers, that digitise the DNA data rapidly. But computations necessary for the analysis of this data are inevitably performed on high-performance computers (HPCs) and cloud computers. These computations not only require powerful computers but also necessitate high-speed networks since the data generated are in the hundreds of gigabytes. Relying on HPCs and high-speed networks, deny the benefits that can be reaped by genomics for the masses who live in remote areas and in poorer nations. Developing a low-cost and portable genomics computation platform would provide personalised treatment based on an individual’s DNA and identify the source of the fast-spreading epidemics in remote areas and areas without HPC or network infrastructure. But developing a low-cost and portable genome analysing computing platform is a challenging task. This thesis develops novel computer architecture solutions to assemble the whole human DNA and COVID-19 virus RNA on a low-cost and portable platform. The first phase of the solution describes a ring-pipelined processor architecture for a key genome assembly algorithm. The human genome is partitioned to fit into the small memory footprint of embedded processors. These techniques allow an entire human genome to be assembled using highly portable and low-cost embedded processor cores. These processor cores can be housed within a single chip. Each processor was only 0.08 mm 2 and consumed just 37.5 mW. It has only 2 GB memory, 32-bit instruction width, and a clock with a 1 GHz frequency. The second phase of the solution describes how application-specific instruction-set processors can be sped up to execute a key genome assembly algorithm. A fully automated design system is presented, which improves the performance of large applications (such as genome assembly algorithm) and generates application-specific instructions for a commercial processor design tool (Xtensa). The tool enhances the base processor, which was used in the ring pipeline processor architecture. Thus, the alignment algorithms execute 2.1 times faster with only 11% additional hardware. The energy-delay product was reduced by 7.3× compared to the base processor. This tool is the only one of its type which can handle applications which are large. The third phase of the solution designs a portable low-cost genome assembly computer (PGA). PGA enhances the ring pipeline architecture with the customised processor found in phase two and with improved inter-processor communication. The results show that the COVID-19 virus RNA can be assembled in under 10 minutes and the whole human genome can be assembled in 11 days on a portable platform (HPC take around two days) for 30× coverage. PGA has an area footprint of just 5.68 mm 2 in a 28 nm technology node and is far smaller than a high-performance computer processor chip. The PGA consumes only 4W of power, which is lower than the power requirement of a high-performance processor chip. The manufacturing cost of the PGA also would be much cheaper than the high-performance system cost, when produced in volume. The developed solution can be powered by a USB port of a laptop. This thesis is the first of its type to show the design of a single-chip solution to be able to process a complex genomic problem. This thesis contributes to attaining one of the fundamental rights of every human being wherever they may live.

  • (2022) Fu, Jiayi
    Thesis
    The increasing focus on sustainability has driven manufacturers to develop greener cementitious products in order to reduce the associated carbon dioxide emissions. Supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) such as ground-granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) are commonly used in the development of low carbon, blended cement formulations. The reduced strength development due to the addition of slag can be improved by the addition of chemical activators such as sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The reactivity and early strength of cement:slag binders is significantly enhanced by the addition of Na2SO4 though the mechanisms underlying the relationship between the enhanced hydration reactions and the strength behaviour remain unclear. This thesis explores the impact of Na2SO4 on the early age chemical reaction mechanism in blended systems containing a high percentage of blast furnace slag. Early hydration reactions and resultant compressive strength in a 50:50 slag:cement binder in the presence of Na2SO4 were investigated. Early strength increases in the presence of Na2SO4 were shown to be due to a combination of increased alite hydration and increased slag dissolution. Increased alite hydration was due to neither reduced dissolved Al concentration nor increased alite under-saturation, but related to increased ionic strength due to the presence of Na2SO4. Increased slag dissolution was associated with both increased pH and decreased Ca activity with the two being connected through the portlandite solubility limit. Na2SO4 was shown to substantially enhance slag dissolution at fixed pH 13 with this action attributed to greater under-saturation of slag as a result of ettringite formation. Na2SO4 was shown to be superior to alternate activators in a slag:cement binder. Microstructural development in the presence of Na2SO4 was investigated utilizing mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), NMR relaxometry, and XRD. Increased rates of early strength development and decreased rates of late strength development due to the presence of added Na2SO4 were linked to effects on capillary porosity refinement. While the degree of hydration at later age was shown to have been lower in the presence of Na2SO4, and may have been responsible for the higher capillary porosity, a clear alteration in the pathway of microstructural development had occurred with inhibition to hydration of the slag component due to earlier microstructural development. Subsequently, different cement types with varying clinker chemistry were used to investigate which clinker phase was primarily responsible for the acceleration reaction with Na2SO4. Early hydration reactions were examined and monitored utilizing mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), calorimetry, and XRD while the resultant compressive strength in a 50:50 slag:cement binder in the presence of Na2SO4 was investigated for up to90days. Forallcementsexamined,astronginversecorrelationbetweenearlystrength development and late age strength was apparent with results suggesting that the retardation of the early hydration reactions due to the presence of sodium sulfate resulted in a higher late age strength development. Previous studies indicate that Na2SO4 activation improves the early strength of blended cements due to enhanced ettringite formation. In this study, we examine whether triethanolamine (TEA) provides further early strength increase through additional ettringite formation by investigating the effect of TEA at 0 to 0.5% w/w of cement in a 2.5% w/w sodium sulfate activated 47.5:50 GGBFS:Portland cement blend. Results of XRD analyses indicate that TEA encouraged ettringite formation through enhanced calcium aluminoferrite (ferrite) and gypsum consumption, and, to a lesser extent, enhanced tricalcium aluminosilicate (C3A) consumption. Increased porewater Fe(III) concentrations provided further evidence of TEA-facilitated ferrite dissolution. Compressive strength results correlated with the degree of calcium silicate hydration and ettringite transformation, being highest in the 0.2% TEA blend but lowest in the 0.5% TEA blend. Finally, the effect of higher gypsum content in blended cement:slag can led to C3A dissolution retardation. Associated early age strength development was examined using calorimetry, pore solution chemistry, XRD, and MIP. Gypsum was found in these cements to exert no effect on alite hydration as it is consumed during C3A hydration and ettringite formation. Compressive strength measurements in the “gypsum studies” reinforced the inverse relationship between early and late strength development and the critical role of alite during early hydration towards late age strength development. This work hopes to contribute a more comprehensive understanding of the effect of Na2SO4 on the early hydration stages of GGBFS incorporated Portland cement blend systems from a geochemical approach in effort to achieve greater sustainability through higher cement replacement.

  • (2022) Tao, Congyuan
    Thesis
    The mesoscale failure behaviour of textile Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) is investigated using in-situ CT scan. The research focused on the potential of using CT acquired geometries, deformation, and failure information to validate traditional modelling techniques and improve the accuracy of future modelling. Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) has been widely used in aerospace, automobile, and sporting industry due to its high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and resistance to fatigue or corrosion. Textile CFRP is a fabric weaved from fibre bundles. Compared to traditional unidirectional CFRP, textile CFRP is usually easier to handle and to form into complex shapes during manufacturing. Due to the yarn interlacing, textile CFRP is also more stable and damage tolerant. However, the interlacing fibre bundles (yarn) introduced additional layer of complexity when predicting the strength and failure of textile composite parts. The main approaches used in current modelling techniques, assume the textile fabric has a regular and repeating structure, failed to capture the irregularity in mesoscale structure introduced during the manufacturing process. As experimental observation shown, the irregularity in mesoscale structure initiates micro crack and failure and has a considerable influence on the properties and failure behaviour of textile CFRPs. The ability of capturing a textile CFRP meso-structure and reconstructing it for FE modelling improves the accuracy of numerical analyses and result in a more reliable and efficient CFRP structure. This research demonstrated the potential of using computer tomography (CT) to improve the understanding of CFRP mesoscale failure behaviour both numerically and experimentally. A more realistic numerical model was constructed using the geometry extracted from the CT image. The CT image volume was classified based on the tow direction and the material property was adjusted based on the fibre orientation. Irregularities in the specimen could be fully reflected in the finite element model. This improves the ability of predicating the onset and progression of failure of textile CFRP. In-situ CT scan was used to investigate the failure mode and crack propagation in several textile CFRP tensile specimens. An in-situ tensile testing rig was designed and manufactured to allow a reliable CT scan of textile CFRP specimens while under tension. One major challenge identified in mesoscale CFRP study is to have a specimen large enough to encompass complete meso-structures while have sufficient resolution. Tensile specimens with a gauge width of 10mm was found to be large enough while providing a good CT image result when scanned using the lowest voltage of 60 kV with 6 accumulations. This resulted in a CT image resolution of 3.2μm. The CT results showed cracks that were usually not visible under conventional scanning technique. Digital volume correlation (DVC) was used to calculate the 3D displacement field by comparing the pre and peri load CT images, providing a quantitative understanding on the failure process. Strain fields were calculated using the forward difference of the displacement field and were used to validate the result of numerical models. The original contribution of this project is the use of CT scan to improve the procedure of obtaining the numerical and experimental results, thus improve the understanding of textile CFRP failure behaviour. A novel in-situ testing rig and the corresponding specimens were manufactured to allow the observation of textile CFRP failure under load. The novel algorithm developed during the project provided a more detailed and accurate geometry of the specimen and allowed for a more accurate model. These contributes to the significant improvement in the understanding of textile composite failure behaviour, both experimentally and numerically.