Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • (2021) Chua, Stephanie
    Improvements in liquid lithium-ion battery electrolytes using of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as a functional decoration on polymer membrane separators were investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. Zirconium-based MOF UiO-66 was introduced to the polymer support using the mixed matrix membrane (MMM) method. The method allowed the one-step manufacture of a robust, mechanically pliable polymer-MOF membrane composite of high MOF loading. MOF-MMMs imparted improved electrochemical behaviours such as a widened potential operating window, near-unity transference number, and increased presence of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) components crucial to battery performance. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also performed to provide insights regarding electrolyte solvation in the presence of MOF. A simple dip-coating technique was utilised to modify the surface of the MOF-MMMs with polydopamine (PDA) for further improvement of the electrochemical properties. Increased transference numbers, as well as stability during rate cycling, were observed with the resulting PDA-MMM owing to the improved electrode/electrolyte interface. However, surface analyses using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that there are reduced amounts vital SEI components compared to the original MOF-MMM support. The last section further explores the versatility of UiO-66 and tackled the preparation of gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) decorated with UiO-66 via phase inversion technique. Using the phase inversion method, the fabricated GPE contained pores from both polymer substrate and the intrinsic pores of the 3D nanomaterial for improvement of electrochemical properties. It was demonstrated in this work that the MOF GPE is equally inert and suitable in ether or carbonate-based electrolytes. Overall, this study demonstrated the versatility of UiO-66 metal organic frameworks for use as a functional nanofiller for electrolyte membranes. With the use of inexpensive membrane fabrication methods, the composites obtained are viable for lithium-metal battery applications. Similarly, insights drawn can provide a springboard towards future study of MOF-based electrolytes.

  • (2022) Wang, Shuangyue
    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit unique optical and electrocatalytic properties. However, the growth of uniform and high-quality NCs of monolayer TMD remains a challenge. Until now, most of them are synthesized via solution-based hydrothermal process or ultrasonic exfoliation method, in which the capping ligands introduced from organic solution often quench the optical and electrocatalytic properties of TMD NCs. Moreover, it is difficult to homogeneously disperse the solution-based TMD NCs on a substrate for device fabrication since the dispersed NCs can easily aggregate. Here, we put forward a novel CVD method to grow closely-spaced TMD NCs and explored the growth mechanism and attempts on the size control. Their applications acting as electrocatalysts and adhesion layer for Au film deposition have been also well displayed. Through the whole chapters of this thesis, the following aspects are highlighted: 1. MoS2 and other TMD nanocrystals have been grown on the c-plane sapphire. The surface oxygen vacancies determine the density of TMD nanocrystals. The MoS2 nanocrystals demonstrate excellent hydrogen evolution reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering performance owing to the abundant edges. 2. Deep insights into the growth of MoS2 nanograins have been explored. The surface step edges and lattice structures of the underlying sapphire substrates have a significant influence on the growth behaviors. The step edges could modulate the aggregation of MoS2 nanograins to form unidirectional triangular islands. The Raman spectra of MoS2 demonstrate a linear relationship with the crystal size of MoS2. 3. The orientation of sapphire substrate has an of importance effect on the critical size of MoS2 nanocrystals. The MoS2 nanocrystals have the smallest size on the r-plane sapphire, besides, the MoS2 on r-plane sapphire demonstrates the sintering-resistance feature, which is attributed to the edge-pinning effect when MoS2 edges are anchored on the sapphire surface. 4. The MoS2 nanocrystalline layer was utilized as the adhesion layer for Au film depositing on a sapphire substrate. The Au films on MoS2 displayed superior transmittance and electrical conductivity as well as outstanding thermal stability, which lay in the strong binding of Au film with MoS2 nanocrystalline layer.

  • (2022) Melodia, Daniele
    Antibodies are increasingly useful therapeutics, and examples include the checkpoint inhibitors pembrolizumab1 and ipilimumab2 in cancer immunotherapy, and anti tau therapies in Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.3,4 However, specific applications requiring cytosolic delivery of the antibody, or transport across the blood-brain barrier pose challenges to antibody therapeutics. These issues may reduce the effectiveness of immunotherapy and restrict it to extracellular targets. Conjugating polymers to proteins and enzymes has been very effective at improving their stability and pharmacokinetics,5–8 and similar approaches have been studied for antibody conjugation.9–12 Finding an effective polymeric delivery system for antibodies can greatly improve immunotherapy. In this work three strategies were explored for the encapsulation and bioconjugation to antibodies. The first approach is the encapsulation via electrostatic interactions between the antibody and a charged block copolymer to form polyion complex (PIC) micelles. Polyphosphonium block copolymers were studied for the first time to encapsulate antibodies, and were compared to their ammonium counterpart. While this approach has the advantage of being reversible, the polymer-antibody electrostatic interactions were too weak for biological applications, and delivery by this means would require a crosslinking strategy. The second approach involves covalent attachment of polymers on the antibody’s surface via a grafting from polymerisation. An oxygen tolerant technique was employed for the screening of a large number of samples in low volumes (<100 μL). Successful grafting was demonstrated by AF4 and gel electrophoresis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed retention of up to 40% binding activity relative to the native antibody with a marked improvement in stability. The third strategy introduces a novel acid sensitive linker for the reversible covalent attachment of polymers to the antibody’s surface. This was achieved by using Diels-Alder chemistry to create an activated PEG that forms an amide with a conformational lock similar to citraconic anhydride upon conjugation to the amines on the antibody. The ability of the linker to cleave at pH 5.5 is demonstrated, resulting in almost complete recovery of the original binding activity of the antibody. Overall, the reversible covalent attachment investigated here seems the most promising, and combining the high throughput method with the cleavable linker approach holds great potential for advancing in immunotherapy. References (1) Reck, M. Pembrolizumab as First-Line Therapy for Metastatic Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Futur. Med. 2018, 10, 93–105. (2) Gao, J.; Ward, J. F.; Pettaway, C. A.; Shi, L. Z.; Subudhi, S. K.; Vence, L. M.; Zhao, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, H.; Efstathiou, E.; Troncoso, P.; Allison, J. P.; Logothetis, C. J.; Wistuba, I. I.; Sepulveda, M. A.; Sun, J.; Wargo, J.; Blando, J. VISTA Is an Inhibitory Immune Checkpoint That Is Increased after Ipilimumab Therapy in Patients with Prostate Cancer. Nat. Med. 2017, 23 (5), 551–555.. (3) Pedersen, J. T.; Sigurdsson, E. M. Tau Immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s Disease. Trends Mol. Med. 2015, 21 (6), 394–402. (4) Castillo-Carranza, D. L.; Sengupta, U.; Guerrero-Munoz, M. J.; Lasagna-Reeves, C. A.; Gerson, J. E.; Singh, G.; Estes, D. M.; Barrett, A. D. T.; Dineley, K. T.; Jackson, G. R.; Kayed, R. Passive Immunization with Tau Oligomer Monoclonal Antibody Reverses Tauopathy Phenotypes without Affecting Hyperphosphorylated Neurofibrillary Tangles. J. Neurosci. 2014, 34 (12), 4260–4272. (5) Abolmaali, S. S.; Tamaddon, A. M.; Salmanpour, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Dinarvand, R. Block Ionomer Micellar Nanoparticles from Double Hydrophilic Copolymers, Classifications and Promises for Delivery of Cancer Chemotherapeutics. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2017, 104 (January), 393–405. (6) Kurakhmaeva, K. B.; Djindjikhashvili, I. A.; Petrov, V. E.; Balabanyan, V. U.; Voronina, T. A.; Trofimov, S. S.; Kreuter, J.; Gelperina, S.; Begley, D.; Alyautdin, R. N. Brain Targeting of Nerve Growth Factor Using Poly(Butyl Cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles. J. Drug Target. 2009, 17 (8), 564–574. (7) Jiang, Y.; Fay, J. M.; Poon, C. D.; Vinod, N.; Zhao, Y.; Bullock, K.; Qin, S.; Manickam, D. S.; Yi, X.; Banks, W. A.; Kabanov, A. V. Nanoformulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor with Target Receptor-Triggered-Release in the Central Nervous System. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2017, 1703982, 1–11. (8) Klyachko, N. L.; Manickam, D. S.; Brynskikh, A. M.; Uglanova, S. V.; Li, S.; Higginbotham, S. M.; Bronich, T. K.; Batrakova, E. V.; Kabanov, A. V. Cross-Linked Antioxidant Nanozymes for Improved Delivery to CNS. Nanomedicine Nanotechnology, Biol. Med. 2012, 8 (1), 119–129. (9) Bin Liu, Khushboo Singh , Shuai Gong , Mine Canakci, Barbara A. Osborne, and S. T. Protein Antibody Conjugates PACs A Plug‐and‐Play Strategy for Covalent Conjugation and Targeted Intracellular Delivery of Pristine Proteins. Angew. Chemie 2021, 133, 12923–12928. (10) Chan, L. J.; Bulitta, J. B.; Ascher, D. B.; Haynes, J. M.; Mcleod, V. M.; Porter, C. J. H.; Williams, C. C.; Kaminskas, L. M. PEGylation Does Not Signi Fi Cantly Change the Initial Intravenous or Subcutaneous Pharmacokinetics or Lymphatic Exposure of Trastuzumab in Rats but Increases Plasma Clearance after Subcutaneous Administration. Mol. Pharm. 2015, 12, 794–809. (11) Subasic, C. N.; Ardana, A.; Chan, L. J.; Huang, F.; Scoble, J. A.; Butcher, N. J.; Meagher, L.; Chiefari, J.; Kaminskas, L. M.; Williams, C. Poly ( HPMA- Co -NIPAM ) Copolymer as an Alternative to Polyethylene Glycol-Based Pharmacokinetic Modulation of Therapeutic Proteins. Int. J. Pharm. 2021, 608 (September), 121075. (12) Keita Hironaka,a,b Erika Yoshihara, Ahmed Nabil, James J. Lai, A. K. and M. E. Conjugation of Antibody with Temperature-Responsive Polymer via in Situ Click Reaction to Enable Biomarker Enrichment for Increased Diagnostic Sensitivity. Biomater. Sci. 2021, 9, 4870–4879.

  • (2022) Oudone, Phetdala
    Dissolved organic carbon is stored and processed in groundwater in three ways. It is stored on minerals by adsorption, it is biologically processed through biodegradation, and it also undergoes a process to return to groundwater called desorption. This biophysiochemical research shows that the groundwater system is therefore a vital part of the global carbon cycle and carbon sink. This research fills a gap in the existing understanding of how to calculate the global carbon budget, as does not yet include the dissolved organic carbon that is stored in groundwater. This thesis exclusively explores processes determining dissolved organic carbon character and concentration in groundwater in different geological environments. This is new, useful knowledge to describe the biophysiochemical process. This research did not examine human interference in adding carbon to groundwater. This research found how dissolved organic carbon is stored and processed in groundwater due to biodegradation and desorption, and how it is adsorbed onto sediment surface. This research explored the characteristics and concentration of Dissolved organic carbon in groundwater by using Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection, and other techniques, to examine dissolved organic carbon in terms of its fractions: humic substances, hydrophobic organic carbon, biopolymers, building blocks (BB), low molecular weight neutrals and low molecular weight acids. There were several key findings. First, the results showed that both semi-arid inland low sedimentary organic carbon environments – i.e., Maules Creek and Wellington – were a carbon source; while the high rainfall temperate coastal peatland environment of Anna Bay was a carbon sink. Secondly, another key finding was that dissolved organic carbon was not processed as a whole chemical compound, but it was processed by its fractions where each fraction was processed distinctly. For example, humic substances were only adsorbed/desorbed in groundwater; while low molecular weight neutrals were only consumed by microbes in the biodegradation process in groundwater.

  • (2022) Wulandari, Erna
    Chronic wounds are a major issue in public health. One of the contributing factors in the development of chronic wounds is bacterial infection, which is exacerbated by the presence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. One approach to tackle wound infection is the use of non-antibiotic antimicrobials with rapid killing effect without inducing resistance. This thesis aims to investigate the application of antimicrobial polymers and iodine in the development of antimicrobial wound dressing platforms. Firstly, contact-active antimicrobial wound dressings were explored. An inert silk sponge was prepared as the substrate and functionalized with antimicrobial polymers on the surface via layer-by-layer assembly. Electrostatic interactions in the multilayer construct confined the antimicrobial polymers and prevented leaching. The sponge was able to suck bacteria into the porous network and kill them upon contact as evidenced by up to 4 log10 reduction against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Additionally, the antimicrobial efficacy was found to be strongly affected by the construction of multilayer assembly. As the contact-active mechanism may reach saturation point on the surface, in the second approach, an antimicrobial platform with a release-killing mechanism was developed. Employing the ability of silk to self-assemble into a thin film, antimicrobial polymers were loaded in the silk matrix. The release of antimicrobial polymers correlated to polymer concentration, silk to polymer ratio, and film configuration. The efficacy of the films was demonstrated by 5 to 7 log10 reduction of planktonic and 3 to 7 log10 reduction of biofilm cells against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, including MDR strains. Furthermore, the straightforward coating method was as effective on glass or cotton substrates. The third approach investigated the immobilization of iodine onto wound dressings for a sustained release system. The immobilization was facilitated by polyamide iodophors that were synthesized on the dressing via plasma polymerization of the gaseous amide monomers. The antimicrobial activity correlated strongly to the structure of the polyamide with the short and linear polymer recorded 4 log10 reduction against P. aeruginosa and 7 log10 reduction S. aureus, including a MDR strain. Overall, the immobilization of iodophors on wound dressings demonstrated a potential new approach in reducing bacteria proliferation in wounds.