Engineering

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 1298
  • (1995) Altermatt, Peter; Heiser, Gernot; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Alan; Wenham, Stuart; Green, Martin
    Conference Paper

  • (1996) Altermatt, Peter; Heiser, Gernot; Aberle, Armin; Wang, Alan; Zhao, Jun; Robinson, J; Bowden, Simon; Green, Martin
    Journal Article
    This paper presents an improved method for measuring the total lumped series resistance (Rs) of high-efficiency solar cells. Since this method greatly minimizes the influence of non-linear recombination processes on the measured Rs values, it is possible to determine Rs as a function of external current density over a wide range of illumination levels with a significantly improved level of accuracy. This paper furthermore explains how resistive losses in the emitter, the base, the metal/silicon contacts and the front metal grid can be separately determined by combining measurements and multidimensional numerical simulations. A novel combination of device simulation and circuit simulation is introduced in order to simulate complete 2 × 2 cm2 PERL (passivated emitter and rear locally-diffused) silicon solar cells. These computer simulations provide improved insight into the dynamics of resistive losses, and thus allow new strategies for the optimization of resistive losses to be developed. The predictions have been experimentally verified with PERL cells, whose resistive losses were reduced to approximately half of their previous values, contributing to a new efficiency world record (24.0%) for silicon solar cells under terrestrial illumination. The measurement techniques and optimization strategies presented here can be applied to most other types of solar cells, and to materials other than silicon.

  • (1995) Aberle, Armin; Altermatt, Peter; Heiser, Gernot; Robinson, Steven J.; Wang, Alan; Zhao, Jun; Krumbein, U; Green, Martin
    Journal Article
    The `passivated emitter and rear locally diffused` (PERL) silicon solar cell structure presently demonstrates teh highes terrestrial performance of any silicon-based solar cell. This paper presents a detailed investigation of the limiting loss mechanisms in PERL cells exhibiting independently confirmend 1-sun efficiencies of up to 23.0%. Optical, resistice, and recombinative losses are all analyzed under the full range of solar cell operating conditions with the aid of two-dimensional (2D) device simulations. The analysis is based on measurements of the reflectance, quaantum efficiency, dark and illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, and properties of the Si-SiO2 interfaces employed on these cells for surface passivation. Through the use of the 2D simulations, particular attention has been paid to the magnitudes of the spatially resolved recombination losses in these cells. Itis shown that approximately 50% of the recombination losses at the 1-sun maximum power point occur in the base of th cells, followed by the recombination losses at the rear and front oxidised surfaces (25% and <25%, respectively). The relativerly low fill factors of PERL cells are princip[ally a result of resistive losses; however, the recombination behavior in the base and at the rear surfacealso contributes. This work predicts that the efficiency of 23% PERL cells could be increased by about 0.7% absolute if ohmic losses were eliminated, a further 1.1% absolute if there were no reflection losses at the nonmetallised front surface regions, about 2.0% by introducing ideal light trapping and eliminating shading losses due to the front metallisation, and by about 3.7% absolute if the device had no defect-related reconbination losses. New design rules for future efficiency improvements, ev


  • (1997) Wolfe, Joseph; Yoon, Yong; Pope, J
    Journal Article
    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the freezing behaviour of lamellar phases of phosphatidylcholine in water and in solutions of sorbitol. Both solute and solvent were deuterated in different series of experiments to allow the calculation of the partitioning of solute and solvent molecules between the lamellar phase and unfrozen bulk solution. Sorbitol, as well as water, was found to redistribute between these phases as a function of temperature. The results show a strong, repulsive, interlamellar force which decreases approximately exponentially with hydration. Compared to measurements on lipid/water systems and solute/water systems, the hydration of the lamellar phase containing solutes is slightly less than the sum of the hydrations of lipid and solute at any given chemical potential of water. For a lamellar phase with a given quantity of lipid, interlamellar sorbitol and water, reduction of chemical potential of water is greater than that due to lipid acting alone plus that due to solute acting alone.

  • (2008) Ho, Minh; Allinson, G; Wiley, Dianne
    Journal Article
    Studies of CO2 capture using membrane technology from coal-fired power-plant flue gas typically assume compression of the feed to achieve a driving force across the membrane. The high CO2 capture cost of these systems reflects the need to compress the low-pressure feed gas (1 bar) and the low CO2 purity of the product stream. This article investigates how costs for CO2 capture using membranes can be reduced by operating under vacuum conditions. The flue gas is pressurized to 1.5 bar, whereas the permeate stream is at 0.08 bar. Under these operating conditions, the capture cost is U.S. $54/tonne CO2 avoided compared to U.S. $82/ tonne CO2 avoided using, membrane processes with a pressurized feed. This is a reduction of 35%. The article also investigates the effect on the capture cost of improvements in CO2 permeability and selectivity. The results show that the capture cost can be reduced to less than U.S. $25/tonne CO2 avoided when the CO2 permeability is 300 barrer, CO2/N2 selectivity is 250, and the membrane cost is U.S. $10/m2.

  • (2006) Ho, Minh; Leamon, Gregory; Ailinson, G; Wiley, Dianne
    Journal Article
    Greenhouse gas emission sources generally produce mixed gases. Previous studies of CCh capture and storage have typically examined only sequestration of pure CO2. This paper analyzes the cost of separating a gas mixture from a power station flue gas stream and injecting it into an offshore subsurface reservoir. The costs of separating and storing various gas mixtures were analyzed at two extremes. One extreme in which the entire flue gas stream containing both CO2 and N2 is stored. The other extreme in which as much CO2 is separated as is technically possible using gas membrane capture coupled with chemical absorption. The results indicate that for the gases investigated, using a gas membrane capture system, the lowest sequestration cost per tonne of CO2 avoided occurs when a mixed gas with a CO2 content of about 60% is sequestered. Lower costs and higher tonnages of CO2 avoided can be achieved using an amine based absorption capture system. At the lowest cost point, and for most of the range of cases studied, the cost of capture is significantly greater than the cost of storage. However, this depends on the source of the CO 2, the distance between the source and the injection site, and the reservoir into which CO2 is injected.

  • (2006) Ho, Minh; Allinson, G; Wiley, Dianne
    Journal Article
    The sequestration of CO2 as a greenhouse mitigation option is becoming an increasingly important priority for industry. Theoretically membrane based CO2 removal systems have the potential to provide a cost effective, low maintenance approach for removing CO2 from gas streams. This study examines the effect of membrane characteristics, operating parameters and system design on sequestration costs for any source-sink combination. The total sequestration cost per tonne of CO2 avoided for separation, transport and storage are compared for the separation of CO2 from a black coalfired power plant in Australia. The results show that the membranes currently available have a total sequestration cost of US$55-61/tonne CO2 avoided. Lower costs for CO2 avoided can be achieved using an MEA amine based absorption separation system. Gas separation membranes would require significant improvements in CO2 permeability and selectivity, together with reductions in the cost of membranes and changes to the process configurations and operating pressures to be competitive against MEA systems for the purposes of geo-sequestration.

  • (2004) Ho, Minh; Wiley, Dianne
    Conference Paper
    The capture and storage of CO2 (CCS) as a greenhouse mitigation option is becoming an increasingly important priority for Australian industry. Membrane based CO2 removal systems can provide a cost effective, low maintenance approach for removing CO2 from gas streams. This study examines the effect of membrane characteristics and operating parameters on CCS costs using economic models developed by UNSW for any source-sink combination. The total sequestration cost per tonne of CO2 avoided for separation, transport and storage are compared for the separation of CO2 from coal fired power plants and natural gas processing. A cost benefit analysis indicates that sequestration of gases of high purities are dominated by compression costs which can be off-set by utilising membranes of higher selectivity coupled with higher permeability to reduce the required transmembrane pressure.

  • (2011) Hanaor, Dorian; Michelazzi, Marco; Chenu, Jeremy; Leonelli, Cristina; Sorrell, Charles
    Journal Article
    Thick anatase films were fabricated on graphite substrates using a method of anodic aqueous electrophoretic-deposition using oxalic acid as a dispersant. Thick films were subsequently fired in air and in nitrogen at a range of temperatures. The morphology and phase composition were assessed and the photocatalytic performance was examined by the inactivation of Escherichia coli in water. It was found that the transformation of anatase to rutile is enhanced by the presence of a graphite substrate through reduction effects. The use of a nitrogen atmosphere allows higher firing temperatures, results in less cracking of the films and yields superior bactericidal performance in comparison with firing in air. The beneficial effects of a nitrogen firing atmosphere on the photocatalytic performance of the material are likely to be a result of the diffusion of nitrogen and carbon into the TiO2 lattice and the consequent creation of new valence band states.