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Changes in fire regimes since the Last Glacial Maximum: an assessment based on a global synthesis and analysis of charcoal data(2008) Power, M; Marlon, J; Ortiz, N; Bartlein, P; Harrison, Simon; Mayle, F; Ballouche, A; Bradshaw, R; Carcaillet, C; Cordova, C; Mooney, Scott; Moreno, P; Prentice, I; Thonicke, K; Tinner, W; Whitlock, C; Zhang, Yanling; Zhao, Yong; Ali, Amna; Anderson, Richard; Beer, R; Behling, H; Briles, C; Brown, Katherine; Brunelle, A; Bush, M; Camill, P; Chu, G; Clark, J; Colombaroli, D; Connor, Stuart; Daniau, A; Daniels, M; Dodson, John; Doughty, E; Edwards, Meredith; Finsinger, W; Foster, Douglas; Frechette, J; Gaillard, M; Gavin, D; Gobet, E; Haberle, Simon; Hallett, D; Higuera, P; Hope, G; Horn, S; Inoue, J; Kaltenrieder, P; Kennedy, Liz; Kong, Z; Larsen, C; Long, C; Lynch, Jodi; Lynch, E; McGlone, M; Meeks, S; Mensing, S; Meyer, G; Minckley, T; Mohr, J; Nelson, D; New, J; Newnham, R; Noti, R; Oswald, W; Pierce, J; Richard, P; Rowe, C; Goni, M; Shuman, B; Takahara, H; Toney, J; Turney, C; Urrego-Sanchez, D; Umbanhowar, C; Vandergoes, M; Vanniere, B; Vescovi, EJournal ArticleFire activity has varied globally and continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM) in response to long-term changes in global climate and shorter-term regional changes in climate, vegetation, and human land use. We have synthesized sedimentary charcoal records of biomass burning since the LGM and present global maps showing changes in fire activity for time slices during the past 21,000 years (as differences in charcoal accumulation values compared to pre-industrial). There is strong broad-scale coherence in fire activity after the LGM, but spatial heterogeneity in the signals increases thereafter. In North America, Europe and southern South America, charcoal records indicate less-than-present fire activity during the deglacial period, from 21,000 to ∼11,000 cal yr BP. In contrast, the tropical latitudes of South America and Africa show greater-than-present fire activity from ∼19,000 to ∼17,000 cal yr BP and most sites from Indochina and Australia show greater-than-present fire activity from 16,000 to ∼13,000 cal yr BP. Many sites indicate greater-than-present or near-present activity during the Holocene with the exception of eastern North America and eastern Asia from 8,000 to ∼3,000 cal yr BP, Indonesia and Australia from 11,000 to 4,000 cal yr BP, and southern South America from 6,000 to 3,000 cal yr BP where fire activity was less than present. Regional coherence in the patterns of change in fire activity was evident throughout the post-glacial period. These complex patterns can largely be explained in terms of large-scale climate controls modulated by local changes in vegetation and fuel load.
(2008) Yang, Xihua; Yang, Yaohua; He, W; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Zhao, YongJournal ArticleTwo-phase composites La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Ta2O5 are synthesized and their magnetization and low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) characteristics are investigated. It is found that a small amount of Ta ions enter into LSMO grains near the grain surface region, resulting in the reduction of the cell volume, and consequently, an extra reduction of the saturate magnetization. The paramagnetism-to-ferromagnetism transition temperature, TC, does not show significant change. The LFMR enhancement is observed over a wide range of temperature from 50 to 350K when the second phase material (Ta2O5) is introduced. The magnetic disorder caused by the secondary phase at grain boundaries and the Ta doping effect on the surface of LSMO grains are believed to contribute to the enhanced MR.
(2008) Kinsela, Andrew; Collins, Richard; Macdonald, Benjamin; Waite, T; White, IanConference Paper
(2008) Collins, Richard; Jones, Adele; Glamore, William; Hancock, M; Stainlay, B; Garcia-Cuenca, S; Pham, An; Melville, Michael; Waite, TConference Paper
(2008) Green, Rosalind; Waite, T; Melville, Michael; Macdonald, BenJournal ArticleThe principles of limestone drain systems that are commonly used to passively remediate acid rock drainage have been adapted and modified for remediation of acidic and metal-rich drainage that is produced from broad scale agricultural land use of regions underlain by Acid Sulfate Soils (ASS). The acidic drainage water from sugar cane fields in an ASS catchment was collected from an open drain, filtered to reduce the transport of large particulates, and passed vertically through a polyethylene tank, which was filled with limestone aggregates ( less than or equal 75 mm). This Closed Tank Reactor (CTR) uses the principles of oxic and anoxic limestone drain systems that are designed to increase the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and thereby the alkalinity produced from the dissolution of limestone by metal-laden influent. During a non-continuous 70 day monitoring period, the discharge from the CTR had higher pH, lower acidity and lower metal concentrations compared to the inflow. Under average flow conditions (9 lpm), similar proportions of incoming dissolved aluminium and iron (61% and 56% respectively) were retained within the CTR. Two perforated pipes in the base of the CTR were used to flush precipitates from the system under rapid flow conditions (>50 lpm). The flushing was effective in removing approximately 10% of accumulated iron but only about 0.3% of accumulated aluminium from the CTR. Accumulation of aluminium inside the CTR is likely to present operational problems in attempts to apply such technology to many coastal acid sulfate soil drains. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
(2008) Green, Rosalind; Waite, T; Melville, Michael; Macdonald, BenJournal ArticleAn open limestone channel (OLC) was constructed within an existing drain to treat the acidic and metal-rich drainage waters generated from an acid sulfate soil (ASS) catchment. The OLC was constructed downstream of a catchment pump and it consisted of a series of ponds and limestone sections. The accumulation of sediment over the limestone, preventing contact of limestone with acidic water, was the greatest problem impacting the OLC in its first year of operation. The continuous or sporadic operation of the catchment pump (at 120 l/s) was not sufficient to flush sediment from the limestone. The accumulation of large amounts of sediment onto the limestone reduced the amount of alkalinity and calcium released into solution. However, if the sediment is removed by agitating the limestone then an equivalent or greater amount of alkalinity may be added to solution and more metals removed from solution compared to fresh limestone. The coating on the limestone had a high concentration of manganese oxides in addition to slightly lower concentrations of aluminium and iron. Removal of these metals from the water was due to the increase in pH produced by limestone dissolution in addition to sorption reactions of the existing coating which had natural microbial activity. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.