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  • (2023) Jia, Jing
    Through rapid urbanisation, urban green spaces (UGS) have become increasingly limited and valuable in high-density urban environments. However, meeting the diverse requirements of sustainable urban development often leads to conflicts in UGS usage. For example, the presence of stormwater treatment facilities may hinder residents' access to adjacent UGS. Traditional approaches to UGS design typically focus on separate evaluations of human wellbeing and stormwater management. However, using questionnaires, interviews, and surveys for human wellbeing evaluation can be challenging to generalise across different projects and cities. Additionally, professional hydrological models used for stormwater management require extensive knowledge of hydrology and struggle to integrate their 2D evaluation methods with 3D models. To address these challenges, this thesis proposes a novel framework to integrate the two types of analysis within a system for balancing the needs of human wellbeing and stormwater management in UGS design. The framework incorporates criteria and parameters for evaluating human wellbeing and stormwater management in a 3D model and introduces an approach to compare these two needs in terms of UGS area and suitable location. The contributions of this thesis to multi-objective UGS design are as follows: (1) defining human wellbeing evaluation through Accessibility and Usability assessment, which considers factors such as connectivity, walking distance, space enclosure, and space availability; (2) simplifying stormwater evaluation using particle systems and design curves to streamline complex hydrological models; (3) integrating the two evaluations by comparing their quantified requirements for UGS area and location; and (4) incorporating parameters to provide flexibility and accommodate various design scenarios and objectives. The advantages of this evaluation framework are demonstrated through two case studies: (1) the human wellbeing analysis based on spatial parameters in the framework shows sensitivity to site variations, including UGS quantity and distribution, population density, terrain, road context, height of void space, and more; (2) the simplified stormwater analysis effectively captures site variations represented by UGS quantity and distribution, building distribution, as well as terrain, providing recommendations for each UGS with different types and sizes of stormwater facilities. (3) With the features of spatial parameter evaluation, the framework is feasible to adjust relevant thresholds and include more parameters to respond to specific project needs. (4) By quantifying the two different requirements for UGS and comparing them, any UGS with high usage conflicts can be easily identified. By evaluating all proposed criteria for UGSs in the 3D model, designers can conveniently observe simulation and adjust design scenarios to address identified usage conflicts. Thus, the proposed evaluation framework in this thesis would be valuable in effectively supporting further multi-objective UGS design.