Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 306

  • (2008) Song, Dengyuan; Cho, E.-C; Conibeer, Gavin; Huang, Yidan; Flynn, Christopher; Green, Martin
    Journal Article
    Amorphous Si1-xCx /SiC multilayer films were prepared by alternating deposition of Si-rich Si1-xCx and near-stoichiometric SiC layers by using magnetron sputtering. The as-deposited films were annealed at different temperatures Ta from 800 to 1100 oC. The influence of Ta and Si content in the Si-rich layer on the layered structural stability and on the formation of Si and/or SiC nanocrystals NCs is investigated by a variety of analytical techniques, including x-ray reflectivity XRR, x-ray diffraction XRD, transmission electron microscopy TEM, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry FTIR. XRR showed that Si1-xCx /SiC multilayers annealed at temperatures of up to 800 oC retain their layered structure. XRD revealed that Si NCs were formed in samples with a high Si content in the Si-rich layer for Ta 800 oC. At annealing temperatures of 900 oC or greater, the formation of Si NCs was accompanied by the formation of -SiC NCs. Additionally, the formation of Si and SiC NCs was confirmed by TEM imaging and Raman spectroscopy. The Si-NC size obtained from the TEM micrographs is within the range of 3-5 nm. The -SiC NCs are smaller 2-3 nm than Si NCs. Raman analysis identified an 9 cm-1 Raman peak shift in the Si-NC peak to a lower energy with respect to that for bulk Si. FTIR Si-C bond absorption spectra exhibited narrowing of the full width at half maximum and a peak shift toward a higher wave number with increasing Ta. This behavior can be explained by an increase in order as well as an increase in the number of Si-C bonds.

  • (2008) Lundie, S; Kröger, T; Peters, G; Rowley, HV; Feitz, A
    Conference Paper
    In this article, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) quantify the performance of variable and fixed speed centrifugal chillers using two refrigerants (HCFC 123 or HFC 134A) in commercial air-conditioning systems. Electricity demand during operation causes the highest environmental and economic burdens for all options. Detailed energy simulation shows that chillers operate most of the time in partial load, therefore energy-optimised variable-speed systems are preferable. We demonstrate the significance of understanding each phase of the life cycle to optimise overall performance. A systems approach, if broadly applied, could reduce the barriers between stakeholders along supply chains.

  • (2008) Lundie, S; Peters, G; Rowley, HV; Schulz, M; Salem, J
    Conference Paper
    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the influence of choosing refrigerants R22, R407C or R410A for domestic air conditioners. Other than the chemical characteristics of R22, the other key factor was the operating pressure. Due to high pressure operation, the R410A system experienced the highest leakage rate, energy consumption and global warming potential (GWP). Sensitivity analysis was used to examine the influence of leakage and to show that, compared with the unit’s lifespan, setpoint and efficiency, the climate in different Australian locations and the load profile have significant effects on the energy use and GWP.

  • (2008) Ho, Minh; Allinson, G; Wiley, Dianne
    Journal Article
    Studies of CO2 capture using membrane technology from coal-fired power-plant flue gas typically assume compression of the feed to achieve a driving force across the membrane. The high CO2 capture cost of these systems reflects the need to compress the low-pressure feed gas (1 bar) and the low CO2 purity of the product stream. This article investigates how costs for CO2 capture using membranes can be reduced by operating under vacuum conditions. The flue gas is pressurized to 1.5 bar, whereas the permeate stream is at 0.08 bar. Under these operating conditions, the capture cost is U.S. $54/tonne CO2 avoided compared to U.S. $82/ tonne CO2 avoided using, membrane processes with a pressurized feed. This is a reduction of 35%. The article also investigates the effect on the capture cost of improvements in CO2 permeability and selectivity. The results show that the capture cost can be reduced to less than U.S. $25/tonne CO2 avoided when the CO2 permeability is 300 barrer, CO2/N2 selectivity is 250, and the membrane cost is U.S. $10/m2.

  • (2008) Wakefield, Claire; Meiser, Bettina; Gaff, C; Barratt, Anthony; Patel, Minoo; Suthers, G; Lobb, Elizabeth; Ramsay, J; Mann, G
    Journal Article
    Purpose: Despite the established importance of the role of family history in prostate cancer, relatively little research encompasses the psychosocial issues relevant to unaffected men with a family history of prostate cancer. To determine the completeness and quality of available literature on the issues faced by men with a high risk of prostate cancer, we conducted a multidisciplinary review of the literature to provide some guidance on the information that clinicians might provide to men who are concerned about family history. Materials and Methods: A structured literature search was conducted by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers who reviewed the medical and psychosocial literature, and identified 21 relevant studies. Results: Research suggests that many high risk patients are concerned about the risk of prostate cancer, and some may significantly overestimate that risk. Several studies have shown high screening rates among high risk patients and high levels of interest in genetic testing for prostate cancer risk should it become available, yet many men also report a desire for more information about their personal risk and risk management options. Conclusions: Given the lack of clear data on the efficacy of prostate cancer screening among high risk patients, clinicians could consider providing men who are concerned about family history with information on their personal risk, help them to clarify the potential benefits, limitations and harms of prostate cancer screening in their situation, and then support their choice regarding the management of prostate cancer risk.

  • (2008) Kasparian, Nadine; Meiser, Bettina; Butow, P; Simpson, John; Mann, G
    Journal Article
    Despite rapid advancements in molecular genetics research, little is known about the psychological experiences of individuals with a family history of melanoma. The present study aimed to identify factors contributing to psychological distress among affected and unaffected individuals with a strong family history of melanoma. A total of 121 adults who had recently been informed of the identification of a family-specific mutation in the CDKN2A melanoma susceptibility gene, completed a self-report questionnaire assessing cancer-specific and generalized distress, and a variety of potential predictors. Having a personal history of melanoma (OR = 3.37, p = 0.033), perceiving greater family implications of melanoma (OR = 2.52, p < 0.0001), and the tendency to monitor for threatening information (OR = 3.12, p = 0.008) were associated with melanoma-specific distress. Being childless (beta = 2.09, p = 0.007), perceiving sun exposure as an important cause of melanoma (beta = 1.15, p = 0.015), and perceiving greater family implications of melanoma (beta = 1.02, p = 0.002) were associated with greater generalized anxiety, while monitoring moderated the relationship between endorsement of a genetic model of melanoma and generalized anxiety (p = 0.005). As in other common familial cancers, distress was relatively uncommon in this familial melanoma cohort, even after notification of the presence of a family mutation. Participants do not contemplate their melanoma risk in isolation, but evaluate their risk vis-a-vis the experiences of their relatives.