Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 113
  • (1995) Altermatt, Peter; Heiser, Gernot; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Alan; Wenham, Stuart; Green, Martin
    Conference Paper

  • (1996) Altermatt, Peter; Heiser, Gernot; Aberle, Armin; Wang, Alan; Zhao, Jun; Robinson, J; Bowden, Simon; Green, Martin
    Journal Article
    This paper presents an improved method for measuring the total lumped series resistance (Rs) of high-efficiency solar cells. Since this method greatly minimizes the influence of non-linear recombination processes on the measured Rs values, it is possible to determine Rs as a function of external current density over a wide range of illumination levels with a significantly improved level of accuracy. This paper furthermore explains how resistive losses in the emitter, the base, the metal/silicon contacts and the front metal grid can be separately determined by combining measurements and multidimensional numerical simulations. A novel combination of device simulation and circuit simulation is introduced in order to simulate complete 2 × 2 cm2 PERL (passivated emitter and rear locally-diffused) silicon solar cells. These computer simulations provide improved insight into the dynamics of resistive losses, and thus allow new strategies for the optimization of resistive losses to be developed. The predictions have been experimentally verified with PERL cells, whose resistive losses were reduced to approximately half of their previous values, contributing to a new efficiency world record (24.0%) for silicon solar cells under terrestrial illumination. The measurement techniques and optimization strategies presented here can be applied to most other types of solar cells, and to materials other than silicon.

  • (1995) Aberle, Armin; Altermatt, Peter; Heiser, Gernot; Robinson, Steven J.; Wang, Alan; Zhao, Jun; Krumbein, U; Green, Martin
    Journal Article
    The `passivated emitter and rear locally diffused` (PERL) silicon solar cell structure presently demonstrates teh highes terrestrial performance of any silicon-based solar cell. This paper presents a detailed investigation of the limiting loss mechanisms in PERL cells exhibiting independently confirmend 1-sun efficiencies of up to 23.0%. Optical, resistice, and recombinative losses are all analyzed under the full range of solar cell operating conditions with the aid of two-dimensional (2D) device simulations. The analysis is based on measurements of the reflectance, quaantum efficiency, dark and illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, and properties of the Si-SiO2 interfaces employed on these cells for surface passivation. Through the use of the 2D simulations, particular attention has been paid to the magnitudes of the spatially resolved recombination losses in these cells. Itis shown that approximately 50% of the recombination losses at the 1-sun maximum power point occur in the base of th cells, followed by the recombination losses at the rear and front oxidised surfaces (25% and <25%, respectively). The relativerly low fill factors of PERL cells are princip[ally a result of resistive losses; however, the recombination behavior in the base and at the rear surfacealso contributes. This work predicts that the efficiency of 23% PERL cells could be increased by about 0.7% absolute if ohmic losses were eliminated, a further 1.1% absolute if there were no reflection losses at the nonmetallised front surface regions, about 2.0% by introducing ideal light trapping and eliminating shading losses due to the front metallisation, and by about 3.7% absolute if the device had no defect-related reconbination losses. New design rules for future efficiency improvements, ev

  • (1997) Wolfe, Joseph; Yoon, Yong; Pope, J
    Journal Article
    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the freezing behaviour of lamellar phases of phosphatidylcholine in water and in solutions of sorbitol. Both solute and solvent were deuterated in different series of experiments to allow the calculation of the partitioning of solute and solvent molecules between the lamellar phase and unfrozen bulk solution. Sorbitol, as well as water, was found to redistribute between these phases as a function of temperature. The results show a strong, repulsive, interlamellar force which decreases approximately exponentially with hydration. Compared to measurements on lipid/water systems and solute/water systems, the hydration of the lamellar phase containing solutes is slightly less than the sum of the hydrations of lipid and solute at any given chemical potential of water. For a lamellar phase with a given quantity of lipid, interlamellar sorbitol and water, reduction of chemical potential of water is greater than that due to lipid acting alone plus that due to solute acting alone.

  • (2008) Ho, Minh; Allinson, G; Wiley, Dianne
    Journal Article
    Studies of CO2 capture using membrane technology from coal-fired power-plant flue gas typically assume compression of the feed to achieve a driving force across the membrane. The high CO2 capture cost of these systems reflects the need to compress the low-pressure feed gas (1 bar) and the low CO2 purity of the product stream. This article investigates how costs for CO2 capture using membranes can be reduced by operating under vacuum conditions. The flue gas is pressurized to 1.5 bar, whereas the permeate stream is at 0.08 bar. Under these operating conditions, the capture cost is U.S. $54/tonne CO2 avoided compared to U.S. $82/ tonne CO2 avoided using, membrane processes with a pressurized feed. This is a reduction of 35%. The article also investigates the effect on the capture cost of improvements in CO2 permeability and selectivity. The results show that the capture cost can be reduced to less than U.S. $25/tonne CO2 avoided when the CO2 permeability is 300 barrer, CO2/N2 selectivity is 250, and the membrane cost is U.S. $10/m2.

  • (2006) Ho, Minh; Leamon, Gregory; Ailinson, G; Wiley, Dianne
    Journal Article
    Greenhouse gas emission sources generally produce mixed gases. Previous studies of CCh capture and storage have typically examined only sequestration of pure CO2. This paper analyzes the cost of separating a gas mixture from a power station flue gas stream and injecting it into an offshore subsurface reservoir. The costs of separating and storing various gas mixtures were analyzed at two extremes. One extreme in which the entire flue gas stream containing both CO2 and N2 is stored. The other extreme in which as much CO2 is separated as is technically possible using gas membrane capture coupled with chemical absorption. The results indicate that for the gases investigated, using a gas membrane capture system, the lowest sequestration cost per tonne of CO2 avoided occurs when a mixed gas with a CO2 content of about 60% is sequestered. Lower costs and higher tonnages of CO2 avoided can be achieved using an amine based absorption capture system. At the lowest cost point, and for most of the range of cases studied, the cost of capture is significantly greater than the cost of storage. However, this depends on the source of the CO 2, the distance between the source and the injection site, and the reservoir into which CO2 is injected.

  • (2008) Power, M; Marlon, J; Ortiz, N; Bartlein, P; Harrison, Simon; Mayle, F; Ballouche, A; Bradshaw, R; Carcaillet, C; Cordova, C; Mooney, Scott; Moreno, P; Prentice, I; Thonicke, K; Tinner, W; Whitlock, C; Zhang, Yanling; Zhao, Yong; Ali, Amna; Anderson, Richard; Beer, R; Behling, H; Briles, C; Brown, Katherine; Brunelle, A; Bush, M; Camill, P; Chu, G; Clark, J; Colombaroli, D; Connor, Stuart; Daniau, A; Daniels, M; Dodson, John; Doughty, E; Edwards, Meredith; Finsinger, W; Foster, Douglas; Frechette, J; Gaillard, M; Gavin, D; Gobet, E; Haberle, Simon; Hallett, D; Higuera, P; Hope, G; Horn, S; Inoue, J; Kaltenrieder, P; Kennedy, Liz; Kong, Z; Larsen, C; Long, C; Lynch, Jodi; Lynch, E; McGlone, M; Meeks, S; Mensing, S; Meyer, G; Minckley, T; Mohr, J; Nelson, D; New, J; Newnham, R; Noti, R; Oswald, W; Pierce, J; Richard, P; Rowe, C; Goni, M; Shuman, B; Takahara, H; Toney, J; Turney, C; Urrego-Sanchez, D; Umbanhowar, C; Vandergoes, M; Vanniere, B; Vescovi, E
    Journal Article
    Fire activity has varied globally and continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM) in response to long-term changes in global climate and shorter-term regional changes in climate, vegetation, and human land use. We have synthesized sedimentary charcoal records of biomass burning since the LGM and present global maps showing changes in fire activity for time slices during the past 21,000 years (as differences in charcoal accumulation values compared to pre-industrial). There is strong broad-scale coherence in fire activity after the LGM, but spatial heterogeneity in the signals increases thereafter. In North America, Europe and southern South America, charcoal records indicate less-than-present fire activity during the deglacial period, from 21,000 to ∼11,000 cal yr BP. In contrast, the tropical latitudes of South America and Africa show greater-than-present fire activity from ∼19,000 to ∼17,000 cal yr BP and most sites from Indochina and Australia show greater-than-present fire activity from 16,000 to ∼13,000 cal yr BP. Many sites indicate greater-than-present or near-present activity during the Holocene with the exception of eastern North America and eastern Asia from 8,000 to ∼3,000 cal yr BP, Indonesia and Australia from 11,000 to 4,000 cal yr BP, and southern South America from 6,000 to 3,000 cal yr BP where fire activity was less than present. Regional coherence in the patterns of change in fire activity was evident throughout the post-glacial period. These complex patterns can largely be explained in terms of large-scale climate controls modulated by local changes in vegetation and fuel load.

  • (1995) Atchison, S; Burford, Robert; Whitby, C; Hibbert, D. Brynn
    Journal Article

  • (2008) Mcdowall, Lyndal; Chen, Gaojian; Stenzel-Rosenbaum, Martina
    Journal Article
    A poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) seven-arms star polymer with lysozyme core was synthesized by conjugating linear N-succinimidyl ester terminated PVP polymer to lysozyme. Reactive PVP polymers were synthesized using a MADIX/RAFT agent functionalized with N-succinimidyl ester. The polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone proceeded in a living fashion up to more than 90% conversion reaching molecular weight of up to 33 000 g . mol(-1) with narrow molecular weight distributions. The PVP polymer was conjugated to lysozyme resulting in the attachment of seven PVP polymers to one lysozyme core. While the reaction was found to be complete when using low-molecular weight PVP, some by-products with less than seven arms were observed when using PVP with a molecular weight of 33 000 g . mol(-1).