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(2022) Zheng, ZhaozhiThesisUrban stormwater runoff possesses the properties of intermittent occurrence, unexpectable volume and variable pollution which lead to different environmental issues, including flooding and waterlogging, pollution transportation, damage to downstream and contamination of the receiving waters. On the other hand, the low-level contamination (relative to sewerage) and large volume supply of stormwater makes it suitable as an alternative water resource to relieve the water shortage in the urban areas. Stormwater harvesting is under the concept of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) trying to treat stormwater properly for the different end-uses (like irrigation, toilet flushing and even for the uses close to human contact). Several treatment technologies (e.g., biofilters, constructed wetlands) have already been implemented to purify the stormwater with effective performance prior to reuse. However, the refractory organic micropollutants (especially herbicides) presented resistance to these nature-based solutions by showing variable treatment outcomes. In order to provide harvested stormwater for end-uses with high quality requirement (e.g., close to human contact recreational waters), a reliable treatment technology for organic micropollutants is desired as a post-treatment method in the stormwater harvesting system. This thesis aims to develop advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), in particular, photoelectrochemical oxidation (PECO), as the post-WSUD treatment approach for stormwater using its oxidation capacity towards the refractory organic micropollutants. Following the technology development procedure, three steps have been conducted: (1) testing the feasibility of AOPs for stormwater herbicides treatment; (2) investigating the intrinsic mechanism in the stormwater herbicides degradation process; and (3) assessing the operation conditions impact towards PECO stormwater treatment system. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode was used in the preliminary lab-scale tests for the feasibility study of AOPs towards stormwater organic micropollutants (two representative herbicides, diuron and atrazine - selected as the target pollutants in the study). The results showed that the effective herbicides degradation could be achieved by PECO process under 5 V operation (which was regarded as the optimal voltage in the system). The positive impact coming from voltage increase has been found in the study. BDD showed a remarkably durable property with stable removal performance under challenging voltage application (9 V) without observed deterioration. The catalysts loading showed negligible effect in removal performance. While the thermal effect was observed as a supporting factor for the process (higher temperature supported the oxidation process). Since BDD is not a perfect choice for scaled-up implementation due to its high manufacture cost, carbon fiber anode was chosen in the following studies and operated under low voltage (2 V) to avoid the possible anode deterioration under high voltage application. In the mechanism investigation, the superoxide radicals were found to be the major reactive species in PECO process. Meanwhile, hydroxyl radicals and free chlorine also demonstrated supporting impact for the oxidation process. With the identified intermediate products, degradation pathways of diuron and atrazine were proposed for the first time for three AOPs (PECO, electrochemical oxidation (ECO) and photocatalytic oxidation (PCO)) in stormwater herbicides degradation process. PECO was certified to be the preferrable stormwater treatment technology with the ability for further oxidation reactions towards herbicides degradation compared with ECO and PCO. In the third study, a flow reactor was designed and used to test the impacts of operational conditions (flow rate, light intensity, and initial pollutant concentration) for PECO process. An obvious improvement was observed for flow rate towards removal performance, while the light intensity was found to influence atrazine removal only. The initial pollutant concentration study demonstrated the robust performance of PECO flow reactor towards herbicides removal under challenging (240 μg L-1) pollutant concentration condition. The real stormwater experiments suggested the possible impacts coming from the stormwater chemistry towards PECO process. Further based on the energy consumption analysis, high flow rate (610 mL min-1) and normal light intensity (100 mW cm-2) were regarded as the optimal operational conditions for flow reactor system. Also, the effective PECO degradation performance of herbicides under the real stormwater environment has been verified by using the stormwater collected from field as supporting electrolyte in the experiments. Overall, this thesis confirms PECO as a promising stormwater herbicides treatment technology (potentially for all organic micropollutants) to provide further purification for stormwater high-quality targets. It also discusses the implications for the practical implementation and points out the future research directions for the system optimization.
(2006) Doran, MichaelThesisThe transplantation of ex vivo expanded mobilized peripheral blood haematopoietic stem cells (PBSC), in place of unmanipulated cells following high dose chemotherapy, reduces the period of cytopenia associated with the therapy’s hemotoxicity. In this thesis the development and optimization of a preclinical prototype hollow fiber bioreactor (HFBR) for the ex vivo expansion of PBSC is described. Mass transport measurements and model of metabolite profiles demonstrate that Cuprophan and Polyflux are suitable membrane material for high-density cell expansion in a HFBR. Materials selected for the HFBR were found to be non-toxic following a 20-day saline extraction. Growth factor (GF) adsorption to the Polyflux membrane makes it unsuitable for expansion of GF dependent cells. However, the GF retention and minimal adsorption characteristics of the Cuprophan membrane are appropriate for this application. Cell-free medium degrades at 37ºC by an oxygen dependent process generating byproducts that inhibit cell growth. This process is relevant to perfusion bioreactors where the bulk of the medium is maintained at 37ºC and is cell-free. Albumin was shown to slow the degradation process but was itself degraded by shear damage inflicted during recirculation. Treating recirculating medium with dialysis against albumin was shown to be a more effective way to mitigate the effects of degradation and lengthen the functional life of albumin over conventional suspension of albumin in the recirculating medium. The preclinical prototype HFBR utilised dialysis against albumin to expand KG-1a cultures from densities as low as 3.5x10^5 cells/ml up to as high as 2x10^8 cells/ml with expansion rates equivalent to T-flask cultures. This process was then applied to PBSC where the targeted 100-fold expansion was achieved. Process optimization was continued using cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells. Growth factor loading sufficient for PBSC expansion in the HFBR was inadequate for CB expansions due to greater than anticipated CB uptake rates. The cell product from the HFBR contained significantly greater yields of CD34+ cells than attained using T-flask cultures. The HFBR platform is suitable for PBSC expansion and appears promising for CB expansion.
(2022) Fan, HuiThesisThe integration of variable distributed energy resources and vehicle electrification has come to focus over the last few years. While much work has been done to address the challenges that arise in modern distribution system planning and operation, continuous improvement to the models with the change is essential. The objective of this thesis is to improve the distribution network planning and operation models in the presence of distributed generation and electric vehicles. It aims to build stochastic models including the power generation and the charging demand, determine the location and sizing of the energy resources and charging stations in the coupled systems, and evaluate the impacts of the new low-carbon technologies on the network. Using a mixed-integer nonlinear programming framework through an optimal power flow analysis, this thesis presents three major methodological contributions including uncertainty modelling, coordinated mathematical formulation, and conflicting objective solutions. First, a multivariate stochastic process based on the notion of copula is applied to derive probabilistic charging patterns and to obtain the stochastic charging profiles. Second, a two-stage stochastic program based on statistical analysis and numerical simulation is introduced to generate synthetic time series of solar and wind power generation. The continuous distributions are discretized to generate the scenarios and the number of scenarios is reduced using Kantorovich metrics. Third, a two-dimensional Pareto front of dominant solutions is given for the competing objectives using a multiobjective Tchebycheff decomposition-based evolutionary algorithm. Case studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. An optimal charging scheduling problem is formulated to assess the stochastic charging models. The problem is formulated as a conic quadratic optimal power flow model and solved with a convex optimization algorithm. Network expansion planning problems are presented with carsharing and non-carsharing models, as well as the distributed energy generations. Overall, these problems aim to minimize the planning and operational cost of feeder routing, and substation alterations while maximizing the utilization of charging stations. It is found that an accurate estimation of the randomness intrinsic to the network is critical to ensure the secure and economic operation and planning of the distribution system intertwined with the transport network.