Science

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • (2011) Hanaor, Dorian; Michelazzi, Marco; Chenu, Jeremy; Leonelli, Cristina; Sorrell, Charles
    Journal Article
    Thick anatase films were fabricated on graphite substrates using a method of anodic aqueous electrophoretic-deposition using oxalic acid as a dispersant. Thick films were subsequently fired in air and in nitrogen at a range of temperatures. The morphology and phase composition were assessed and the photocatalytic performance was examined by the inactivation of Escherichia coli in water. It was found that the transformation of anatase to rutile is enhanced by the presence of a graphite substrate through reduction effects. The use of a nitrogen atmosphere allows higher firing temperatures, results in less cracking of the films and yields superior bactericidal performance in comparison with firing in air. The beneficial effects of a nitrogen firing atmosphere on the photocatalytic performance of the material are likely to be a result of the diffusion of nitrogen and carbon into the TiO2 lattice and the consequent creation of new valence band states.

  • (2011) Hanaor, Dorian; Michelazzi, Marco; Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina; Romagnoli, Marcello; Sorrell, Charles
    Journal Article
    The dispersion of anatase phase TiO2 powder in aqueous suspensions was investigated by zeta-potential and agglomerate size analysis. The iso-electric point (IEP) of anatase was determined to be at pH 2.8 using monoprotic acids for pH adjustment. In comparison, it was found that the use of carboxylic acids, citric and oxalic, caused a decrease in zeta-potential through the adsorption of negatively charged groups to the particle surfaces. The use of these reagents was shown to enable effective anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of TiO2 onto graphite substrates at low pH levels with a decreased level of bubble damage in comparison with anodic EPD from basic suspensions. The results obtained demonstrate that the IEP of TiO2 varies with the type of reagent used for pH adjustment. The low pH level of the IEP and the ability to decrease the zeta-potential through the use of carboxylic acids suggest that the anodic EPD of anatase is more readily facilitated than cathodic EPD.

  • (2011) Bednall, Timothy; Kehoe, E. James
    Journal Article
    This study examined the effectiveness of providing instructional support for the self-regulation of a self-directed homework assignment. Across four parallel experiments, university students completed an online module on critical thinking. In Experiment 1, participants who were prompted on a broad spectrum of study strategies showed superior performance on a subsequent test of application relative to a control group. In Experiment 2, participants were prompted to use two specific strategies: generation of explanations and summarization. The former improved performance, whereas the latter did not. In Experiment 3, instructional aids designed to facilitate planning improved some aspects of performance relative to the control group. In Experiment 4, attempts to encourage self-feedback impaired performance. In conclusion, beyond encouraging a broad spectrum of study strategies, the generation of explanations and planning particularly improve learning without overburdening working memory.

  • (2011) Walter, Scott; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael
    Journal Article
    The study aimed to assess the effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries given the ongoing debate in Australia as to the efficacy of this measure at a population level. We used hospital admissions data from New South Wales, Australia, from a 36 month period centred at the time legislation came into effect. Negative binomial regression of hospital admission counts of head and limb injuries to cyclists was performed to identify differential changes in head and limb injury rates at the time of legislation. Interaction terms were included to allow different trends between injury types and pre- and post-law time periods. To avoid the issue of lack of cyclist exposure data, we assumed equal exposures between head and limb injuries which allowed an arbitrary proxy exposure to be used in the model. As a comparison, analyses were also performed for pedestrian data to identify which of the observed effects were specific to cyclists. In general the models identified a decreasing trend in injury rates prior to legislation, an increasing trend thereafter and a drop in rates at the time legislation was enacted, all of which were thought to represent background effects in transport safety. Head injury rates decreased significantly more than limb injury rates at the time of legislation among cyclists but not among pedestrians. This additional benefit was attributed to compulsory helmet legislation. Despite numerous data limitations, we identified evidence of a positive effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries at a population level such that repealing the law cannot be justified.