Science

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • (2010) Dall'Osso, Filippo; Dale, Dominey-Howes
    Journal Article
    Australia is at risk from tsunamis and recent work has identified the need for models to assess the vulnerability of exposed coastal areas – a fundamental element of the risk management process. Outputs of vulnerability assessment can be used as a baseline for the generation of tsunami pre- vention and mitigation measures, including evacuation maps. Having noted that no evacuation maps exist for Manly, Syd- ney (an area recently subjected to high resolution building vulnerability assessment by Dall’Osso et al., 2009b), we use the results of the analysis by Dall’Osso et al. (2009b) to “draft” tsunami evacuation maps that could be used by the local emergency service organisations. We then interviewed 500 permanent residents of Manly in order to gain a rapid assessment on their views about the potential usefulness of the draft evacuation maps we generated. Results of the sur- vey indicate that residents think the maps are useful and un- derstandable, and include insights that should be considered by local government planners and emergency risk manage- ment specialists during the development of official evacua- tion maps (and plans) in the future.

  • (2010) Dall'Osso, Filippo; Lorenza, Bovio; Alessandra, Cavalletti; Francesco, Immordino; Marco, Gonella; Giovanni, Gabbianelli
    Journal Article
    We present here a novel method to assess coastal vulnerability to tsunami based on GIS (Geographical Information System), ASTER imagery (Advanced Spaceborn Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SRTM-3 elevation model (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission-3). We developed this method within the CRATER project (Coastal Risk Analysis for Tsunamis and Environmental Remediation) and applied it on the whole western coast of Thailand. As result, we generated a set of vectorial vulnerability maps with a geometrical resolution of 90m (scale 1:450 000). This approach provides a low-cost and quick tool to analyse extended coastal tracts, and prioritize investments for prevention measures or for further high-resolution analysis.

  • (2010) Dall'Osso, Filippo; Maramai, Alessandra; Graziani, Laura; Brizuela, Beatriz; Cavalletti, Alessandra; Gonella, Marco; Tinti, Stefano
    Journal Article
    The volcanic archipelago of the Aeolian Islands (Sicily, Italy) is included on the UNESCO World Heritage list and is visited by more than 200 000 tourists per year. Due to its geological characteristics, the risk related to vol- canic and seismic activity is particularly high. Since 1916 the archipelago has been hit by eight local tsunamis. The most recent and intense of these events happened on 30 De- cember 2002. It was triggered by two successive landslides along the north-western side of the Stromboli volcano (Sciara del Fuoco), which poured approximately 2–3×107 m3 of rocks and debris into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The waves im- pacted across the whole archipelago, but most of the damage to buildings and infrastructures occurred on the islands of Stromboli (maximum run-up 11 m) and Panarea. The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of build- ings to damage from tsunamis located within the same area inundated by the 2002 event. The assessment is carried out by using the PTVA-3 Model (Papathoma Tsunami Vulner- ability Assessment, version 3). The PTVA-3 Model calcu- lates a Relative Vulnerability Index (RVI) for every build- ing, based on a set of selected physical and structural at- tributes. Run-up values within the area inundated by the 2002 tsunami were measured and mapped by the Istituto Italiano di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the University of Bologna during field surveys in January 2003. Results of the assessment show that if the same tsunami were to oc- cur today, 54 buildings would be affected in Stromboli, and 5 in Panarea. The overall vulnerability level obtained in this analysis for Stromboli and Panarea are “average”/“low” and “very low”, respectively. Nonetheless, 14 buildings in Strom- Correspondence to: F. Dall’Osso (filippodallosso@gmail.com) boli are classified as having a “high” or “average” vulnera- bility. For some buildings, we were able to validate the RVI scores calculated by the PTVA-3 Model through a qualita- tive comparison with photographs taken by INGV and the University of Bologna during the post-tsunami survey. With the exception of a single structure, which is partially cov- ered by a coastal dune on the seaward side, we found a good degree of accuracy between the PTVA-3 Model forecast as- sessments and the actual degree of damage experienced by buildings. This validation of the model increases our confi- dence in its predictive capability. Given the high tsunami risk for the archipelago, our results provide a framework for pri- oritising investments in prevention measures and addressing the most relevant vulnerability issues of the built environ- ment, particularly on the island of Stromboli.

  • (2010) Williams, Alishia; Moulds, Michelle; Grisham, Jessica; Gay, Philippe; Lang, Tamara; Kandris, Eva; Werner-Seidler, Aliza
    Journal Article
    Study 1 evaluated the psychometric properties of the English version of the Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ; Luciano, Algarabel, Tomás, & Martínez, 2005), an index of perceived control over intrusive cognitions. Confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 720 University students revealed a clear uni-dimensional structure (after removal of items 5, 7, 8, 14, and 25) with high internal consistency (α = .87, 95% CI = [.86, .88]) and test-retest reliability after a six month interval (r = .68). Correlational analyses supported an inverse relationship with measures of depression, anxiety, maladaptive cognitive control strategies, and obsessive–compulsive symptomatology. Study 2 tested the ability of the TCAQ to predict successful cognitive control during an experimental suppression protocol. Results demonstrated that weak thought control ability was predictive of the frequency and associated levels of distress of a target thought while under instruction to suppress. Additionally, weak perceived thought control ability was predictive of increased efforts to suppress the target material. Collectively, results suggest that thought control ability is a measurable individual difference variable and that the TCAQ is a reliable index of perceived cognitive control.

  • (2010) Williams, Alishia; Moulds, Michelle
    Journal Article
    The current study sought to experimentally assess the differential effects of analytical ruminative processing and distraction on the experience of self-referent naturally occurring intrusive memories in a sample of dysphoric (BDI-II ≥ 12) participants. Seventy seven undergraduate participants completed a memory interview to elicit details about a self-referential intrusion and were randomly assigned to either an analytical rumination or distraction condition. Subsequent to the rumination induction, participants rated their intrusive memory as more negative, more distressing, and more evocative of a negative emotional response compared to participants who were allocated to the distraction induction. Inducing analytical rumination also resulted in participants reporting worse (i.e., more sad) mood relative to those in the distraction condition. The findings align with the suggestion that depressed individuals may get caught up in a ruminative cycle that, due to the documented effects of analytical self-focus, exacerbate the emotional response elicited by intrusions and perpetuate biased attentional focus on them. Directions for future investigations of the cognitive processes that are important in the maintenance of intrusions in depressive disorders are discussed.

  • (2010) Olivier, Jake; Norberg, Melissa
    Journal Article
    Although the normal probability distribution is the cornerstone of applying statistical methodology; data do not always meet the necessary normal distribution assumptions. In these cases, researchers often transform non normal data to a distribution that is approximately normal. Power transformations constitute a family of transformations, which include logarithmic and fractional exponent transforms. The Box-Cox method offers a simple method for choosing the most appropriate power transformation. Another option for data that is positively skewed, often used when measuring reaction times, is the Ex-Gaussian distribution which is a combination of the exponential and normal distributions. In this paper, the Box-Cox power transformation and Ex-Gaussian distribution will be discussed and compared in the context of positively skewed data. This discussion will demonstrate that the Box-Cox power transformation is simpler to apply and easier to interpret than the Ex-Gaussian distribution.

  • (2010) Laffan, Shawn; Lubarsky, Eugene; Rosauer, Dan
    Journal Article
    Biodiverse is a tool for the spatial analysis of diversity using indices based on taxonomic, phylogenetic and matrix (e.g. genetic dissimilarity) relationships. The explosion in georeferenced biological specimen and survey data means there is an increasing need for such tools. Biodiverse supports four processes: 1) linked visualisation of data distributions in geographic, taxonomic, phylogenetic and matrix spaces; 2) spatial moving window analyses including richness, endemism, phylogenetic diversity and beta diversity; 3) spatially constrained agglomerative cluster analyses; and 4) randomisations for hypothesis testing. Biodiverse is open-source and supports user developed extensions. It can be used both through a graphical user interface and scripts. Biodiverse can be downloaded from .

  • (2010) Willems van Beveren, Laurens Henry; Tan, Kuan; Lai, Nai Shyan; Dzurak, Andrew; Hamilton, Alex
    Journal Article
    We report the fabrication and study of Hall bar field-effect transistors in which an overlapping-gate architecture allows four-terminal measurements of low-density two-dimensional electron systems while maintaining a high density at the Ohmic contacts. Comparison with devices made using a standard single gate show that measurements can be performed at much lower densities and higher channel resistances, despite a reduced peak mobility. We also observe a voltage threshold shift which we attribute to negative oxide charge, injected during electron-beam lithography processing.

  • (2010) Willems van Beveren, L.H.; Gauja, E.; Johnson, B.C.; McCallum, J.C.
    Journal Article
    A deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) study of defects created by low-fluence, low-energy ion-implantation for development of ion-implanted silicon field-effect transistors for spin-dependent transport experiments is presented. Standard annealing strategies are considered to activate the implanted dopants and repair the implantation damage in test metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Fixed oxide charge, interface trapped charge and the role of minority carriers in DLTS are investigated. A furnace anneal at 950 °C was found to activate the dopants but did not repair the implantation damage as efficiently as a 1000 °C rapid thermal anneal. No evidence of bulk traps was observed after either of these anneals. The ion-implanted spin-dependent transport device is shown to have expected characteristics using the processing strategy determined in this study.

  • (2010) McKenzie, Warren Richard; Munroe, Paul
    Journal Article
    An analytical transmission and electron microscope study of diamond structures created using a Focused Ion Beam Hard Mask (FIBHM) technique is presented. From our findings we propose a novel hard mask mechanism for the patterning diamond which represents a new form of ion beam lithography. It involves a surface modification induced by a FIB implantation which, on exposure to a plasma etch, leads to the formation of a non-volatile platform on which components in the plasma can deposit to subsequently protect the underlying or unmasked material from etching in the same plasma environment. We show this mechanism describes the formation of diamond nano-whiskers being used for field emitters and biosensors. We also predict that it is effective for patterning silicon and explains similar masking behavior observed in the literature.