Science

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 56
  • (2008) Wakefield, Claire; Meiser, Bettina; Homewood, J; Peate, Michelle; Taylor, Adrian; Lobb, Elizabeth; Kirk, J; Young, Mark; Williams, Robyn; Dudding, T; Tucker, Katherine
    Journal Article
    Purpose To measure the effectiveness of a tailored decision aid (DA) designed to help women make informed decisions about genetic testing for breast/ovarian cancer risk. Methods A total of 145 women were randomized to receive the DA or a control pamphlet at the end of their first genetic counseling consultation. Of these, 120 (82.8%) completed two questionnaires, 1 week and 6 months post-consultation. Results While the DA had no effect on informed choice, post-decisional regret or actual genetic testing decision, the trial showed that women who received the DA had higher knowledge levels and felt more informed about genetic testing than women who received the control pamphlet (chi(2)(2) = 6.82; P = 0.033; chi(2)(1) = 4.86; P = 0.028 respectively). The DA also helped women who did not have blood drawn at their first consultation to clarify their values with regards to genetic testing (chi(2)(1) = 5.27; P = 0.022). Women who received the DA were less likely to share the information with other family members than women in the control condition (chi(2)(1) = 8.78; P = 0.003). Conclusions Decision aids are an effective decision-support strategy for women considering genetic testing for breast/ovarian cancer risk, and are most effective before the patient has made a decision, which is generally at the point of having blood drawn.

  • (2012) Poulos, Roslyn; Hatfield, Julie; Rissel, Chris; Grzebieta, Raphael; McIntosh, Andrew S
    Journal Article
    Introduction: There are clear personal, social and environmental benefits of cycling. However, safety concerns are among the frequently cited barriers to cycling. In Australia, there are no exposure-based measures of the rates of crash or ‘near miss’ experienced by cyclists. Design and setting: A prospective cohort study over 12 months, with all data collected via web-based online data entry. Participants: Two thousand adults aged 18 years and older, living in New South Wales (Australia), who usually bicycle at least once a month, will be recruited from March to November 2011. Methods: In the 12 months following enrolment, cyclists will be surveyed on 6 occasions (weeks 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 48 from the week of the enrolment survey). In these survey weeks, cyclists will be asked to provide daily reports of distance travelled; time, location and duration of trips; infrastructure used; crashes, near misses and crash-related injuries. Information on crashes and injuries will also be sought for the intervening period between the last and current survey. A subsample of participants will receive bicycle trip computers to provide objective measurement of distance travelled. Discussion: This study protocol describes the prospective cohort study developed to assess near misses, crashes and injuries among cyclists by time and distance travelled and by type of infrastructure used, with recruited participants entering data remotely using the internet. We expect to be able to calculate event rate according to exposure overall and for different infrastructure types and to report in-depth information about event causation.

  • (2012) Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott; Grzebieta, Raphael
    Journal Article
    Since the 1991 enactment of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, there has been extensive debate as to its effect on head injury rates at a population level. Many previous studies have focused on the impact of MHL around the time of enactment, while little has been done to examine the ongoing effects. We aimed to extend prior work by investigating long-term trends in cyclist head and arm injuries over the period 1991–2010. The counts of cyclists hospitalised with head or arm injuries were jointly modelled with log-linear regression. The simultaneous modelling of related injury mechanisms avoids the need for actual exposure data and accounts for the effects of changes in the cycling environment, cycling behaviour and general safety improvements. Models were run separately with population counts, bicycle imports, the average weekday counts of cyclists in Sydney CBD and cycling estimates from survey data as proxy exposures. Overall, arm injuries were higher than head injuries throughout the study period, consistent with previous post-MHL observations. The trends in the two injury groups also significantly diverged, such that the gap between rates increased with time. The results suggest that the initial observed benefit of MHL has been maintained over the ensuing decades. There is a notable additional safety benefit after 2006 that is associated with an increase in cycling infrastructure spending. This implies that the effect of MHL is ongoing and progress in cycling safety in NSW has and will continue to benefit from focusing on broader issues such as increasing cycling infrastructure.

  • (2013) Bambach, Mike; Mitchell, R; Grzebieta, R; Olivier, J
    Journal Article
    There has been an ongoing debate in Australia and internationally regarding the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in preventing head injury amongst cyclists in crashes involving motor vehicles, and to assess the impact of ‘risky cycling behaviour’ among helmeted and unhelmeted cyclists. This analysis involved a retrospective, case-control study using linked police-reported road crash, hospital admission and mortality data in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2001 to 2009. The study population was cyclist casualties who were involved in a collision with a motor vehicle. Cases were those that sustained a head injury and were admitted to hospital. Controls were those admitted to hospital who did not sustain a head injury, or those not admitted to hospital. Standard multiple variable logistic regression modelling was conducted, with multinomial outcomes of injury severity. There were 6,745 cyclist collisions with motor vehicles where helmet use was known. Helmet use was associated with reduced risk of head injury in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles of up to 74%, and the more severe the injury considered, the greater the reduction. This was also found to be true for particular head injuries such as skull fractures, intracranial injury and open head wounds. Around one half of children and adolescents less than 19 years were not wearing a helmet, an issue that needs to be addressed in light of the demonstrated effectiveness of helmets. Non-helmeted cyclists were more likely to display risky riding behaviour, however, were less likely to cycle in risky areas; the net result of which was that they were more likely to be involved in more severe crashes.

  • (2013) Walter, Scott; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael
    Journal Article
    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107–109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety.

  • (2007) Getley, Ian L.
    Thesis
    This study set out to examine the levels of galactic cosmic radiation exposure to Australian aircrew during routine flight operations, with particular attention to the high southern latitude flights between Australia and South Africa. Latitudes as high as 65° South were flown to gain the data and are typical of the normal flight routes flown between Sydney and Johannesburg on a daily basis. In achieving this objective it became evident that suitable commercially available radiation monitoring equipment was not readily available and scientific radiation monitors were sourced from overseas research facilities to compliment my own FH4lB and Liulin monitors provided by UNSW. At the same time it became apparent that several predictive codes had been developed to attempt to model the radiation doses received by aircrew based on flight route, latitudes and altitudes. Further, it became apparent that these codes had not been subjected to verification at high southern latitudes and that they had not been validated for the effects of solar particle events. Initially measurements were required at the high latitudes followed by mid-latitude data to further balance the PCAIRE code to ensure reasonableness of results for both equatorial and high latitudes. Whilst undertaking this study new scientific monitors became available which provided an opportunity to observe comparative data and results. The Liulin, QDOS and a number of smaller personal dosimeters were subsequently obtained and evaluated. This appears to be the first time that such an extensive cross comparison of these monitors has been conducted over such a wide range of latitudes and altitudes. During the course of this study a fortuitous encounter with GLE 66 enabled several aspects of code validation to be examined, namely the inability of predictive codes to estimate the increased dose associated with a GLE or the effects of a Forbush decrease on the code results. Finally I review the known biological effects as discussed by numerous authors based on current epidemiological studies, with a view to high-lighting were the advent of future technology in aviation may project aircrew dose levels.

  • (2017) So, Tin Hang Hanson
    Thesis
    Airline passenger segmentation is traditionally classified into the categories of Business, Leisure and VFR (visiting friends and relatives). Most academic studies to date have only focused on the differences between business and leisure passengers without further exploring potential segments among business passengers. Hence, this research aims to enhance our understanding of the flight choice behaviour of business passengers, and in particular, exploring the potential differences between those who work in small and medium enterprises (SMEs, with 200 or less staff) and those in non-SMEs (more than 200 staff). Descriptive analysis from revealed preference (RP) data and discrete choice models from stated preference (SP) choice surveys are used to ascertain attributes that are significant to choice behaviour. Descriptive analyses show that more business passengers work in the SME category. However, SME passengers tend to fly less, are more price-sensitive, and derive less satisfaction in flying with full-service carriers if they have previously flown with low-cost carriers. Discrete choice model results show that fewer flight service attributes are significant on flights between Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane due to shorter flight duration. However, more attributes related to ticket flexibility are found significant for one-day trips. On flights between Perth and the east coast, willingness to pay calculates a range of $25 to $62 for one piece of checked baggage, and $30 to $46 for an extra legroom seat. Attributes related to flight comfort have a larger significance on inbound flights (i.e., return flights from Perth to the east coast). Self-funded passengers are more price-sensitive when purchasing flights. Furthermore, we observed in choice experiment that attribute non-attendance (ANA) is above 55% for all tested attributes, with the exception of fare; not all attributes are perceived equally by business passengers. Flight product attributes are considered separately from ticket flexibility attributes by business passengers. Therefore, airlines may consider unbundling its products for them. New SP surveys can be deployed to test future flight products. The traditional segmentation method of passengers based on Business, Leisure and VFR trip purposes should be thoroughly reviewed, with the categorisation of business passengers expanded based on the findings of this research.

  • (2017) Raggett, Louise
    Thesis
    Unlike flight operations, which is now regarded as an ‘Ultra-safe system’ (Amalberti 2001, p. 109) aviation ground safety has languished behind the rest of the industry (Verschoor and Young 2011), with activities on the ramp now accounting for more than a quarter of all incidents (Balk and Bossenbroek 2010). In recent years, both ‘damage to aircraft and harm to ground personnel have escalated’ (Passenier 2015 p. 38) costing air carriers more than USD10 billion annually (GAO 2007) Models and measures influential to aviation safety are reviewed for their possible contribution to the ground safety problem. The Threat and Error Management Model (TEM) and Line Operation Safety Audit (LOSA) method (Klinect, Murray, Merritt and Helmreich 2003) were identified as potential candidates and critically examined for their suitability. The aim of the current research was to develop an approach that builds on the existing benefits of LOSA, whilst incorporating contemporary theories of safety science, and improving data reliability and validity where possible. A new method is proposed named ‘Normal Operations Monitoring’ (NOM). NOM is an observation methodology which codes and measures human and safety performance in routine operations. NOM attempts to measure the gap between the system as designed and the system as actually operated (Hollnagel 2007). Identifying this variance provides novel insights into factors which influence safety performance and suggest new opportunities for interventions and improvement. NOM was customised for application in the ground handling industry. Data was collected and analysed from over 1300 observations of aircraft turnarounds. Implications for ground safety are explored as well as the potential applications and benefits of NOM to other domains. The final discussion explores how the current research and NOM tools could be taken forward as a method for informing and improving safety management in other high-hazard industries.

  • (2018) Keshavarzian, Pedram
    Thesis
    Long-distance leisure travel often involves purchasing an airline ticket and choosing travel destinations. Although destination choices have been studied in the tourism context, travellers' behaviour when choosing an airline ticket is less studied and the effect of these two choices (air ticket and destinations) on each other or on the final destination choice is not well investigated. This thesis contributes to the literature by examining the interplay between airline ticket features, tourism attributes and travellers' personal preferences on holiday destination choices. In particular, using the leader-driven primacy phenomenon, the study tests whether destination choices are influenced by first exposure to airline and then tourism attributes or vice versa. A qualitative method (the Repertory Grid Technique) was used to investigate the decision-making process of choosing a tourism destination, and to determine a list of salient factors that may affect destination choices. The results of the RGT study were utilised in a subsequent quantitative method, the Discrete Choice Model, to assess the role of various attributes on destination choices and the way airline and tourism factors may interact with each other. Findings of this research provide evidence that suggests flexibility and not having to worry about paying extra charges for airline tickets play a significant role in holiday destination choices. The results have also shown that the influence of change and cancellation features of a ticket on the selection of destinations is moderated by season of travel. Travellers' personal preferences, such as attraction to the historical background of the destination, have found to significantly influence destination choice. This emotional reaction is of paramount importance as travellers have been shown to evaluate destinations by preconceptions they have formed before being presented with choice. The sequencing of information on destination choices shows that early exposure to airline attributes increases the importance of the non-airfare factors in decision-making. The findings challenge the linear funnel-like choice-set approach to destination choice decisions and provide evidence that these decisions are dynamic, individual, and evolving in line with the way that travellers search for and find transport and travel information.

  • (2012) Lee, Andy
    Thesis
    Many airports around the world have co-located or are in the process of reallocating alliance aligned carriers to their designated terminals or terminal areas, to promote flight connectivity, common user facilities and airport-airlines relationships. While operational and financial benefits on the part of the airlines have been made clear by existing literatures on airline alliances and alliance-hubbing, but the tangible benefits to be derived by airport operators are less obvious. In order to better understand why airport operators have come onboard with the concept in the first place, this paper considered existing cases of London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle and Tokyo Narita Airport. These airports were selected for the qualitative case analysis primarily because of the relevance of their operating environment (i.e. alliance network hubs) and their early implementation of alliance terminal co-location. A quantitative case study on Sydney Airport – representing airports without the implementation of the concept, was conducted to determine if alliance terminal co-location could yield operational and financial merits for the airport operator similar to those observed at the sample airports.