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(2011) Bednall, Timothy; Bove, LilianaJournal ArticleAlthough research into blood donor motivation abounds, most studies have typically focused on small sets of variables, used different terminology to label equivalent constructs, and have not attempted to generalize findings beyond their individual settings. The current study sought to synthesize past findings into a unified taxonomy of blood donation drivers and deterrents, and estimate the prevalence of each factor across the worldwide population of donors and eligible non-donors. Primary studies were collected and cross-validated categories of donation motivators and deterrents were developed. Proportions of first-time, repeat, lapsed, apheresis and eligible non-donors endorsing each category were calculated. In terms of motivators, first-time and repeat donors most frequently cited convenience, prosocial motivation and personal values; apheresis donors similarly cited the latter two motivators. Conversely, lapsed donors more often cited collection agency reputation, perceived need for donation, marketing communication and incentives as motivators. In terms of deterrents, both donors and non-donors most frequently referred to low self-efficacy to donate, low involvement, inconvenience, absence of marketing communication, ineffective incentives, lack of knowledge about donating, negative service experiences, and fear. The integration of past findings has yielded a comprehensive taxonomy of factors influencing blood donation, and has provided insight into the prevalence of each factor across multiple stages of donors’ careers. Implications for collection agencies are discussed.
Stimulating informal learning activities through perceptions of performance appraisal quality and HRM system strength: A two-wave study(2013) Bednall, Timothy; Sanders, Karin; Runhaar, PietyJournal ArticleEmployees' participation in informal learning activities benefits their workplace performance, and ultimately their long-term career development. While research has identified several individual- and organizational-level factors that promote participation, to date, the role of human resource management (HRM) in facilitating informal learning activities is not well understood. We investigate the effects of perceptions of performance appraisal quality and HRM system strength on three informal learning activities: reflection on daily activities, knowledge sharing with colleagues, and innovative behavior. Using a sample of 238 employees from 54 work teams, we examine changes in levels of participation in the informal learning activities over a year. Performance appraisal quality was found to be positively associated with increased participation in each activity over time, and HRM system strength positively moderated these relationships. Implications of the findings for educational institutions and other organizations are discussed.