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(1998) Choi, C; Kim, Hann; Standard, Owen; Kim, Min; Zhao, Yong; Sorrell, CharlesJournal ArticleYBa2Cu3O7-y with high grain alignment has been successfully fabricated by a modified powder melting process at a temperature of ~930oC which is near the eutectic point of the starting materials Y2BaCuO5, BaCuO2, and CuO. In terms of the levitation force and YBa2Cu3O7-y grain alignment, the best result was shown in a sample having a Y2BaCuO5:BaCuO2:CuO molecular ratio of 1:3:5. In the present work, the Cu-surplus eutectic liquid was completely absorbed by use of a Y2BaCuO5 substrate, by which the final composition was driven to stoichiometric YBa2Cu3O7-y. The results were comparable to those obtained by the conventional melt-texture-growth process. A new invariant point apparently occurred at ~930-940oC owing to an interfacial reaction between YBa2Cu3O7-y matrix and Y2BaCuO5 substrate.
Stimulating informal learning activities through perceptions of performance appraisal quality and HRM system strength: A two-wave study(2013) Bednall, Timothy; Sanders, Karin; Runhaar, PietyJournal ArticleEmployees' participation in informal learning activities benefits their workplace performance, and ultimately their long-term career development. While research has identified several individual- and organizational-level factors that promote participation, to date, the role of human resource management (HRM) in facilitating informal learning activities is not well understood. We investigate the effects of perceptions of performance appraisal quality and HRM system strength on three informal learning activities: reflection on daily activities, knowledge sharing with colleagues, and innovative behavior. Using a sample of 238 employees from 54 work teams, we examine changes in levels of participation in the informal learning activities over a year. Performance appraisal quality was found to be positively associated with increased participation in each activity over time, and HRM system strength positively moderated these relationships. Implications of the findings for educational institutions and other organizations are discussed.