Business

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 20
  • (2011) Bednall, Timothy; Bove, Liliana
    Journal Article
    Although research into blood donor motivation abounds, most studies have typically focused on small sets of variables, used different terminology to label equivalent constructs, and have not attempted to generalize findings beyond their individual settings. The current study sought to synthesize past findings into a unified taxonomy of blood donation drivers and deterrents, and estimate the prevalence of each factor across the worldwide population of donors and eligible non-donors. Primary studies were collected and cross-validated categories of donation motivators and deterrents were developed. Proportions of first-time, repeat, lapsed, apheresis and eligible non-donors endorsing each category were calculated. In terms of motivators, first-time and repeat donors most frequently cited convenience, prosocial motivation and personal values; apheresis donors similarly cited the latter two motivators. Conversely, lapsed donors more often cited collection agency reputation, perceived need for donation, marketing communication and incentives as motivators. In terms of deterrents, both donors and non-donors most frequently referred to low self-efficacy to donate, low involvement, inconvenience, absence of marketing communication, ineffective incentives, lack of knowledge about donating, negative service experiences, and fear. The integration of past findings has yielded a comprehensive taxonomy of factors influencing blood donation, and has provided insight into the prevalence of each factor across multiple stages of donors’ careers. Implications for collection agencies are discussed.

  • (2011) Athota, Vidya Sagar
    Thesis
    Traditionally, research has focused on the consequences of human values and the determinants of values have been neglected. The central aim of this thesis was to investigate the mechanisms and motivational basis for values. To achieve this aim, I determined how biologically based approach and avoidance personality traits predicted values via the mediating roles of emotional management and executive function. I also used experimental conditions to further understand the determinants of values in predicting risk-taking behavior. This thesis contains five self-contained papers (chapters 2-6). Each chapter explores the literature and focuses on indirect and direct predictors of values. Together, the six studies revealed the potential mechanisms and a motivational basis for values. Chapter 1, supported the proposed model that Emotional Intelligence mediated the relationship between Cloninger et al.‟s (1993) approach and avoidance personality traits and the Values. In chapter 2, the proposed association between Emotional Intelligence, personality and Machiavellian moral reasoning was supported. Chapter 4 (Studies 2 and 3), provided general support for the proposed model; indirect pathways (via Emotional Intelligence) from approach and avoidance personality traits predicted Machiavellianism. In chapter 5, a laboratory based study suggested that approach personality traits (Carver and White, 1994; Goldberg, 1999; Jackson, 2005) predicted the values of Universalism, Benevolence, Hedonism, and Stimulation via Executive Functioning. Finally, in chapter 6, a laboratory study suggested that Approach personality traits and values directly influence risk-taking behavior. Overall, the findings suggest that personality traits predict values via managing emotions, and Executive Functioning. Personality traits, emotional management and Executive Functioning provided mechanisms and a motivational basis for human values. Further evidence points to personality traits providing mechanisms for values under laboratory conditions. Theoretical implications and limitations are discussed at the end of each chapter.

  • (2011) Cheng, David
    Thesis
    Emotional labour is the process of regulating both inward feelings and outward expressions for the purpose of achieving work goals (Grandey, 2000). Past research shows that the performance of emotional labour to produce positive emotional displays is associated with both positive and negative outcomes for the organisation and the employees who produce the emotional display (Bono & Vey, 2005). However, some employees must engage in negative emotional labour which involves the regulation of feelings and expressions in order to display negative emotions for the purposes of carrying out work duties. This thesis contributes to the wider body of emotional labour research by investigating the antecedents, strategies and consequences of negative emotional labour. Two studies are reported. Study 1 uses an experimental design and draws upon recent developments on the interpersonal effects of anger to examine whether the expression of negative affect by employees and the intensity with which it is expressed lead to greater compliance to requests made. Results demonstrate that the expression of negative affect, regardless of its intensity, lead to increased compliance with employee requests. Study 2 extends the findings of the first study by examining the antecedents, deep and surface acting strategies, and consequences of expressing negative affect in a field study of debt collectors. Results show that employees engage in negative emotional labour when they perceive the negative emotional display rules of their organisation. In addition, the emotional labour strategy used by employees has an influence on the outcomes of emotional labour. Deep acting results in increased employee performance while surface acting leads to detrimental outcomes such as emotional exhaustion and acts of workplace deviance. Implications for research, practice and future directions are discussed.

  • (2011) Goodwin, Robyn
    Thesis
    In this thesis, I present three studies that test a widely held—yet rarely tested—assumption; that emotional labour strategies are related to organisationally relevant outcomes. Specifically, in the first study I test whether surface acting and deep acting are related to employees’ overall performance and turnover in a call centre environment. In the second and third studies, I conduct an experiment and a survey to test in more detail how the perceived authenticity of employees’ emotional expressions is related to two service outcomes: employee service performance and customer satisfaction. Results suggest that surface acting is directly related to employee turnover, and that the inauthentic positive emotional displays typically produced by engaging in surface acting negatively relate to service outcomes. Further, I introduce the concept of display rule salience—the extent to which an organisation’s display rules are explicitly prescribed, enforced, and made known to those internal and external to the organisation—and investigate its moderating effect on the relationship between perceived emotional authenticity and service outcomes. Results support the presence of relationships between both surface acting and turnover, as well as between perceived emotional authenticity and service outcomes. Display rule salience appears to moderate the latter relationship, however the results are inconsistent. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • (2011) Paget, Rebecca
    Thesis
    The obesity epidemic persists, despite countless strategic efforts made to counter it. The aim of my research was to discover if there is a new approach to be taken to contain the obesity epidemic. In the final chapter of this thesis, I present a study design intended to test the efficacy of a novel and scalable obesity intervention strategy. In Chapter 1, which provides detail about the obesity problem I am addressing, I point out that the obesity epidemic is contributed to in two (related) ways: an increasing body mass index (BMI) amongst the present population and an increased risk that high BMI will affect future generations. This observation, although seemingly obvious, is rarely pointed out, and is the first indication that the causality of the obesity epidemic is not well understood. I suggest that there is a prevalent causal understanding of the obesity epidemic, which fails to discern causes of obesity from causes of the obesity epidemic and, as a result, accurately depicts neither. I call this view, modelled in Chapter 2, The Conventional View. Two additional models are presented, which address the weaknesses of The Conventional View. In Chapter 3 I argue that if my updated causal model of the obesity epidemic, An Updated View, is more accurate than The Conventional View the goals of most current obesity interventions are suboptimal. This argument follows being able to show that the goals of current obesity intervention strategies are based on The Conventional View. The study design presented in the final chapter is the main contribution of this thesis. An obesity intervention strategy delivered to pregnant women targets causal factors prominent in An Updated View. There are two main questions addressed by the hypotheses in this study. Firstly, will the treatment enable glucose control? And then, will improved glucose control translate into a reduced risk of obesity for women (the present population) and their children (future generations)? In other words, will the intervention reduce the obesity epidemic?

  • (2011) Quek, Kheng Boon
    Thesis
    With the rapid development of information technology and spread of globalisation, the automotive industry’s value chain has become increasingly geographically dispersed, and global automobile manufacturers are managing the supply of parts and components around the world at an ever lower cost. However, automobile manufacturers can achieve cost-savings in supply-chain management either by setting up their own low-cost supply base overseas or sourcing parts from independent low-cost suppliers (local or overseas). The classical make-or-buy question remains. When automobile manufacturers decide to buy (i.e. source from independent suppliers), they now face an additional level of choice—whether to buy from local or foreign suppliers. Despite the significant body of literature on the first level of choice between make and buy—especially in the context of the automotive industry—the second level question of how automobile manufacturers choose between foreign and local suppliers to manage the buy decision remains under-researched. This is surprising given the relevance of the topic in an increasingly globalised industry where the choice of suppliers is more important than the choice between make and buy (since outsourcing parts and components to suppliers has become the norm). This dissertation’s objective was to advance the existing make-or-buy literature by focusing on the second step of buy decisions within the context of the Australian automotive industry. Drawing from transaction cost economics, the resource-based view, the business strategy literature and the new institutional sociological theory, a conceptual framework has been proposed to investigate (1) what factors influence Australian automobile manufacturers’ choice between purchasing parts and components from local or foreign suppliers, and (2) how Australian automobile manufacturers structure the buyer–supplier relationship with their suppliers (arm’s length or obligatory relationship). Based on a combination of quantitative methods and archival research, this study identified a range of factors that influence Australian automobile manufacturers’ choice between local and foreign suppliers, and the way they manage their business relationships with their suppliers to sustain a competitive advantage. This dissertation represents the first attempt to advance our understanding of an important yet understudied topic in the make-or-buy literature in a new empirical context.

  • (2010) Riantoputra, Corina Debora
    Thesis
    This thesis attempts to answer the question of why some top managers have the confidence that they can control their environments, while others do not. Based on two perspectives - information processing theory and managerial cognition -this thesis proposes that informational and perceived organizational contexts have different roles in influencing top manager's perception of control. To investigate this proposition, two studies were conducted focusing on Indonesia's competitive pharmaceutical industry. The first study examines how top managers' perception of control is influenced by the interplay of informational and perceived organizational contexts. Employing a quasi-experimental design, the study manipulated the types of environments that top manager's face, namely external and internal environments. Data was collected from 46 top managers through case scenarios-questionnaires and analysed through moderated multiple regression. Findings show that (1) informational context influences top managers' perception of control in a more complex way than previously understood, (2) perceived organizational context acts as a significant moderator between informational context and top manager's perception of control, and (3) different factors affect perception of control over internal and external environments differently. The second study endeavours to understand how organizational identity, which is a powerful aspect in perceived organizational context, is associated with top manager's perception of control. The study uses an interpretive approach to analyse 18 interviews with top managers and seeks to contribute to the literature by employing Bruner's schema accessibility principle. It finds that (1) decision integration, desired future image, and information sharing are keys in making identity dimensions accessible, thus enabling the activation of organizational identity concepts in the minds of top managers, and (2) top manager's perception of control is associated with the extent to which they are able to activate their organizational identity. The thesis integrates findings from the two studies and builds a framework to better understand top manager's perception of control. It concludes by discussing findings and the integrated framework in relation to strategic decision making and organizational action.

  • (2011) Riaz, Zahid
    Thesis
    This study explores an alternative approach to regulation for addressing corporate governance problems relating to director and executive remuneration disclosure that are often associated with corporate collapses worldwide. Drawing on the concept of collibration, an approach to managing tensions between opposing forces in a social arena through government intervention, the study explores its application to the development of a unique regulatory framework, comprised of a mix of state and self regulation for corporate governance in Australia. Thereafter the study examines the impact of mixed regulation on disclosure level of director and executive remuneration in Australian firms. The results of econometric analyses show that remuneration disclosure levels are significantly higher after the establishment of a mixed regulatory regime. After controlling for firm specific characteristics, improvement in the level of remuneration disclosure is found to be primarily driven by the establishment of remuneration committees, chairman and CEO role separation, presence of CEO on remuneration committee, number of female directors on remuneration committee and the presence of remuneration consultant – thus highlighting the key aspects of mixed regulatory initiatives influencing disclosure levels in Australia. In addition, this research examines the distinctive case of MNC-subsidiaries in Australia, by uncovering how multi-nationality can affect disclosure level of director and executive remuneration. The results suggest that, other things being equal, MNCs are less responsive to increased disclosure requirements than their local counterparts in Australia unless they have substantial interactions with Australian product markets. The study lends support to the growing body of literature which advocates collibration as a contemporary approach to reduce agency problems through government intervention. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of collibration in facilitating the implementation of recommended self-regulatory practices to improve remuneration disclosure. The analysis also demonstrates that collibration can act as an effective tool to develop a regulatory framework that aligns state regulation designed to protect shareholder interests with market oriented self-regulation.

  • (2010) Qin, Di
    Thesis
    Multinational corporations (MNCs) have been conceptualized as worldwide networks of knowledge acquisition, transfer, and integration across countries (Gupta & Govindarajan, 2000; Szulanski, 1996). Within the MNC network, through knowledge transfer, subsidiaries are playing an increasingly important role in their contribution to the MNC’s firm-specific advantages (Birkinshaw et al., 1998). External to the network, national culture has been viewed as one of the most important environmental variables impacting on knowledge transfer (Bhagat et al., 2002; Holden, 2001). Yet, research into exactly how national culture influences knowledge transfer within MNCs and how MNC subsidiary roles might be affected by the culture distance between MNC home and host countries is scarce. Integrating theoretical perspectives in knowledge management, strategic management and cross-cultural management literature, this thesis investigates how national culture impacts, if at all, on knowledge transfer within MNCs, and examines the relationships between national culture, knowledge transfer, MNC subsidiary roles and subsidiary performance. Using the IT industry in China as its empirical context, the study employed a mixed methods approach to data collection in order to triangulate and elaborate the findings to reach consensus. Findings from the survey of 36 China-based subsidiaries, along with case studies in two of these companies, confirmed that national culture is an important factor in knowledge transfer. Cultural dimensions and values, and in particular specific values in Chinese culture, were found to have significant impacts on knowledge flows to and from China-based subsidiaries. Language barriers and trust were also found to be important factors in MNC knowledge management practice. In addition, the findings suggest that cultural distance between MNC home and host countries, measured by Hofstede’s (1980, 1993) framework, is significantly and negatively related to MNC subsidiary roles, and moderates the relationship between knowledge transfer and subsidiary performance. Different results were obtained when using Schwartz’s (1994) framework, highlighting the different focuses of the two cultural frameworks. Taken together, these findings have important theoretical and managerial implications for MNC knowledge management and strategic management in a cross-cultural setting.

  • (2011) Weerasombat, Thunyalak
    Thesis
    This study investigates the implementation of the Toyota Production System (TPS) at Toyota Motor Thailand (TMT). Rather than being uniquely ‘best practice’, the TPS is shaped by its institutional surrounds, and by the interplay among System, Societal, and Dominance effects. Human resource management (HRM) also facilitates the implementation of the TPS through skill formation and labour control. This research employs a qualitative case-study approach based on data collected mainly from interviews of TMT personnel and government officials as well as various corporate and official documents. The thesis argues that the relatively ‘lean’ version of the TPS at TMT results in part from system and societal effects in the Thai society, namely supportive state industrial policy, and deficient labour protection deriving from an underdeveloped industrial relations system. Industrial and labour policies attract massive investment from Toyota and accordingly encourage the transfer of their best practices: the TPS. The ‘weak’ industrial relations system does not hinder the implementation of ‘lean’ versions of the TPS, because ineffective unions lack the power to resist work reorganisation. The underdeveloped Thai skill formation system might impede the TPS implementation – since, according to much literature, the TPS requires workers to have highly developed skills. However, the inadequate skills of the Thai workforce do not impede the implementation of the TPS, owing to HRM at the firm level that fills workers’ skills gaps. Moreover, lack of clarity in the conceptualisation of ‘skill’ in HRM practice plays a key role in labour control at TMT. The concept of ‘skill’ has come to include broader ‘attributes’ of personality, particularly the ‘right’ attitudes, and this facilitates management control of labour, since workers with the ‘wrong’ attitude can be defined as unskilled and performance managed accordingly. Toyota specifically includes what could be called ‘competencies of compliance’, in what it calls the ‘Toyota Way’. Its performance management system defines such characteristics as competencies necessary for advancement in the firm. This thesis thus reveals how the practices of skill definition, skill development, remuneration, and performance management are integrated together – albeit not completely – in a ‘bundle’ of HRM concepts, which enhances skill development and labour control at TMT.