Medicine & Health

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 29
  • (1998) Bradley, Peter; Rozenfeld, Anatoly; Lee, Kevin; Jamieson, Dana; Heiser, Gernot; Satoh, S
    Journal Article
    The first results obtained using a SOI device for microdosimetry applications are presented. Microbeam and broadbeam spectroscopy methods are used for determining minority carrier lifetime and radiation damage constants. A spectroscopy model is presented which includes the majority of effects that impact spectral resolution. Charge collection statistics were found to substantially affect spectral resolution. Lateral diffusion effects significantly complicate charge collection

  • (1998) Lutze, J; Roden, J; Holly, C; Wolfe, Joseph; Egerton, J; Ball, Malcolm
    Journal Article
    Growth under elevated [CO2] promoted spring frost damage in field grown seedlings of snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.), one of the most frost tolerant of eucalypts. Freezing began in the leaf midvein, consistent with it being a major site of frost damage under field conditions. The average ice nucleation temperature was higher in leaves grown under elevated [CO2] (– 5.7 oC versus – 4.3 oC), consistent with the greater incidence of frost damage in these leaves (34% versus 68% of leaves damaged). These results have major implications for agriculture, forestry and vegetation dynamics, as an increase in frost susceptibility may reduce potential gains in productivity from CO2 fertilization and may affect predictions of vegetation change based on increasing temperature.

  • (1998) Wool, R; Kusefoglu, S; Khot, S; Zhao, R; Palmese, Gaetano; Boyd, Andrew; Fisher, Keith; Bandyopadhyay, Srikanta; Williams, J; Wang, Chaoyuan
    Conference Paper

  • (1999) Oakes, Samantha; Gorrie, Catherine; Waite, Phil
    Conference Paper

  • (1999) Gorrie, Catherine; Duflou, J; Brown, Jennifer; Waite, Phil
    Journal Article

  • (1998) Waite, Phil; Gorrie, Catherine; Mark, Adam; Duflou, J; Brown, Jennifer
    Conference Paper

  • (1998) Gorrie, Catherine; Duflou, J; Mark, Adam; Waite, Phil
    Conference Paper

  • (1998) Bertrand, P. P; Kunze, W. A.; Bornstein, J. C.; Furness, J. B.
    Journal Article
    The patterns of innervation of the mucosa by axons of individual primary afferent neurons with cell bodies in the myenteric plexus were studied by mapping sites from which electrical stimulation of the mucosa elicited action potentials (APs) in their cell bodies. Segments of guinea-pig ileum were dissected to reveal the myenteric plexus over half of the intestinal circumference, leaving the mucosa intact over the other half. Intracellular recordings were taken from myenteric neurons located within 1 mm of the intact mucosa. Focal electrical stimuli were applied to the mucosa at multiple locations separated by about 1 mm. Neurons that responded had round or oval cell bodies with several long processes (Dogiel type II) and APs that had an inflection on the falling phase (AH-neurons). Responses consisted of single APs or bursts of APs. Maps of the mucosal projections of 30 neurons were generated. The maximum distances from which individual neurons responded were 7 mm circumferential and 2 mm oral or anal to the cell body with a higher proportion of responses from the oral regions. The areas of intact mucosa calculated to be innervated ranged from 1 mm2 up to approximately 15 mm2 (mean 3.9 mm2; median 2.5 mm2). It is estimated that the areas innervated would be two to three times larger under conditions where part of the mucosa is not removed. Some neurons also responded to a chemical or a mechanical stimulus applied to the mucosa within the electrically mapped area. It is concluded that intrinsic primary afferent neurons have overlapping receptive fields with 230 to 350 neurons innervating the same region of mucosa.

  • (1998) Kunze, W. A.; Furness, J. B.; Bertrand, P. P; Bornstein, J. C.
    Journal Article
    1. Isolated longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparations from guinea-pig ileum were used to investigate the activity of myenteric neurons when the tissue was stretched in the circumferential direction. Membrane potentials were recorded via flexibly mounted intracellular recording electrodes containing Neurobiotin in 1 M KCl. The preparations were stretched to constant widths (+20% and +40% beyond slack width). 2. Multipolar neurons (Dogiel type II morphology) discharged spontaneous action potentials and proximal process potentials during maintained stretching, three of twenty-one at +20% stretch and seven of nine at +40% stretch. At the maximum extent of stretch tried, +40% beyond slack tissue width, action potentials in Dogiel type II neurons occurred at 10-33 Hz. Neurons with other morphologies were all uniaxonal. Some displayed spontaneous fast EPSPs or action potentials, three of forty one at +20% stretch and seven of nineteen at +40% stretch. 3. In seven of eight Dogiel type II neurons, action potentials or proximal process potentials persisted when membrane hyperpolarization was imposed via the recording electrode. Action potential discharge was abolished by hyperpolarization in seven of nine uniaxonal neurons; the exceptions were two orally projecting neurons. 4. Dogiel type II and uniaxonal neurons were classified as rapidly accommodating if they discharged action potentials only at the beginning of a 500 ms intracellular depolarizing pulse and slowly accommodating if they discharged for more than 250 ms. For Dogiel type II neurons, three of thirteen were slowly accommodating at +20% stretch and two of four at 40% stretch. For uniaxonal neurons the corresponding data were twelve of twenty-six and fifteen of nineteen neurons. The slowly accommodating state was associated with increased cell input resistance in uniaxonal neurons. 5. The spontaneous action potential discharge in Dogiel type II and uniaxonal neurons ceased when the muscle was relaxed pharmacologically by nicardipine (3 microM) or isoprenaline (1 microM), although the applied stretch was maintained. At the same time, evoked spike discharge became rapidly accommodating. 6. We conclude that many Dogiel type II neurons, and possibly some orally projecting uniaxonal neurons, are intrinsic, stretch-sensitive, primary afferent neurons that respond to muscle tension with sustained action potential discharge.

  • (1999) Lomax, A. E.; Sharkey, K. A.; Bertrand, P. P; Low, A. M.; Bornstein, J. C.; Furness, J. B.
    Journal Article
    Intracellular recordings were made from myenteric neurons of the guinea-pig distal colon to determine their electrical behaviour in response to intracellular current injection and stimulation of synaptic inputs. The recording microelectrode contained the intracellular marker biocytin, which was injected into impaled neurons so that electrophysiology, shape and immunohistochemistry could be correlated. Myenteric neurons in the distal colon were divided into four morphological groups based on their shapes and projections. One group (29 of the 78 that were characterized electrophysiologically, morphologically and immunohistochemically) was the multiaxonal Dogiel type II neurons, the majority (25/29) of which were calbindin immunoreactive. Each of these neurons had an inflection on the falling phase of the action potential that, in 24/29 neurons, was followed by a late afterhyperpolarizing potential (AHP). Slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials were recorded in 20 of 29 Dogiel type II neurons in response to high frequency internodal strand stimulation and two neurons responded with slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Low amplitude fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials occurred in 3 of 29 Dogiel type II neurons. Neurons of the other three groups were all uniaxonal: neurons with Dogiel type I morphology, filamentous ascending interneurons and small filamentous neurons with local projections to the longitudinal or circular muscle or to the tertiary plexus. Dogiel type I neurons were often immunoreactive for nitric oxide synthase or calretinin, as were some small filamentous neurons, while all filamentous ascending interneurons tested were calretinin immunoreactive. All uniaxonal neurons exhibited prominent fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials and did not have a late AHP following a single action potential, that is, all uniaxonal neurons displayed S type electrophysiological characteristics. However, in 6/19 Dogiel type I neurons and 2/8 filamentous ascending interneurons, a prolonged hyperpolarizing potential ensued when more than one action potential was evoked. Slow depolarizing postsynaptic potentials were observed in 20/29 Dogiel type I neurons, 6/8 filamentous ascending interneurons and 8/12 small filamentous neurons. Six of 29 Dogiel type I neurons displayed slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, as did 2/8 filamentous ascending interneurons and 4/12 small filamentous neurons. These results indicate that myenteric neurons in the distal colon of the guinea-pig are electrophysiologically similar to myenteric neurons in the ileum, duodenum and proximal colon. Also, the correlation of AH electrophysiological characteristics with Dogiel type II morphology and S electrophysiological characteristics with uniaxonal morphology is preserved in this region. However, filamentous ascending interneurons have not been encountered in other regions of the gastrointestinal tract and there are differences between the synaptic properties of neurons in this region compared to other regions studied, including the presence of slow depolarizing postsynaptic potentials that appear to involve conductance increases and frequent slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials.