Medicine & Health

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • (2011) Mao, Limin; Kippax, Susan; Holt, Martin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John
    Journal Article
    Objective Three decades into the HIV epidemic and with the advancement of HIV treatments, condom and non-condom-based anal intercourse among gay men in resource-rich countries needs to be re-assessed. Methods The proportions of men engaging in a range of anal intercourse practices were estimated from the ongoing cross-sectional Gay Community Periodic Surveys in six states in Australia from 2007 to 2009. Comparisons were made between HIV-negative men, HIV-positive men with an undetectable viral load and those with a detectable viral load. Results Condoms play a key role in gay men's anal intercourse practices: 33.8% of HIV-negative men, 25.1% of HIV-positive men with an undetectable viral load and 22.5% of those with a detectable viral load reported consistent condom use with all male partners in the 6 months before the survey. Among HIV-negative men, the second largest group were men who had unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) only in the context of HIV-negative seroconcordant regular relationships. Among HIV-positive men, the second largest group was men who had UAI in casual encounters preceded by HIV status disclosure to some, but not all, casual partners. Conclusions A minority, yet sizeable proportion, of men consistently engaged in a number of UAI practices in specific contexts, suggesting they have adopted deliberate HIV risk-reduction strategies. While it is important that HIV behavioural prevention continues to reinforce condom use, it needs to address both the challenges and opportunities of the substantial uptake of non-condom-based risk-reduction strategies.

  • (2014) Mao, Limin; de Wit, John; Kippax, Susan; Prestage, Garrett; Holt, Martin
    Journal Article
    Objectives With the increasing momentum to maximize the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), better understanding of opportunities and challenges in increasing ART coverage and promoting early ART initiation is urgently needed. Key sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural factors associated with Australian HIV-positive gay men’s current nonuse of ART were systematically examined. Methods Data were based on 1911 responses from HIV-positive men who had participated in the Australian Gay Community Periodic Surveys (GCPS) between 2010 and 2012. Stratified univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used. Results A majority of the participants were recruited from gay community venues and events and self-identified as gay or homosexual. On average, they were 44 years old and had been living with HIV for at least 10 years. Close to 80% (n = 1555) were taking ART, with >90% further reporting an undetectable viral load at the time of the survey. From 2010 to 2012, there had been a moderate increase in ART uptake [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–1.65]. In addition, younger age (AOR 1.66; 95% CI 1.45–1.92), recent HIV diagnosis (AOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.59–1.98), not receiving any social welfare payments (AOR 2.20; 95% CI 1.05–2.54) and no annual screening for sexually transmissible infections (AOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.03–2.34) were independently associated with ART nonuse. Conclusions Current ART coverage among HIV-positive gay men in Australia is reasonably high. To further increase ART coverage and promote early ART initiation in this population, better clinical care and sustained structural support are needed for HIV management throughout their life course.

  • (2010) Jin, Feng Yi; Jansson, James; Law, Matthew; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; Imrie, John; Kippax, Susan; Kaldor, John; Grulich, Andrew; Wilson, David
    Journal Article
    Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate per-contact probability of HIV transmission in homosexual men due to unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the era of HAART. Design: Data were collected from a longitudinal cohort study of community-based HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Methods: A total of 1427 participants were recruited from June 2001 to December 2004. They were followed up with 6-monthly detailed behavioral interviews and annual testing for HIV till June 2007. Data were used in a bootstrapping method, coupled with a statistical analysis that optimized a likelihood function for estimating the per-exposure risks of HIV transmission due to various forms of UAI. Results: During the study, 53 HIV seroconversion cases were identified. The estimated per-contact probability of HIV transmission for receptive UAI was 1.43% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48–2.85] if ejaculation occurred inside the rectum, and it was 0.65% (95% CI 0.15–1.53) if withdrawal prior to ejaculation was involved. The estimated transmission rate for insertive UAI in participants who were circumcised was 0.11% (95% CI 0.02–0.24), and it was 0.62% (95% CI 0.07–1.68) in uncircumcised men. Thus, receptive UAI with ejaculation was found to be approximately twice as risky as receptive UAI with withdrawal or insertive UAI for uncircumcised men and over 10 times as risky as insertive UAI for circumcised men. Conclusion: Despite the fact that a high proportion of HIV-infected men are on antiretroviral treatment and have undetectable viral load, the per-contact probability of HIV transmission due to UAI is similar to estimates reported from developed country settings in the pre-HAART era.

  • (2010) Jin, Feng Yi; Prestage, Garrett; Matthews, Gail; Zablotska, Iryna; Rawstorne, Patrick; Kippax, Susan; Kaldor, John; Grulich, Andrew
    Journal Article
    Background An increasing incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-positive homosexual men has recently been described, but it is uncertain to what extent this reflects sexual transmission. We report prevalence, incidence and risk factors for HCV infection in community-based cohorts of HIV-negative and HIV-positive homosexual men in Sydney. Methods Both cohorts recruited participants using similar community-based strategies. Men underwent annual face-to-face interviews, and reported history of injecting-drug use (IDU) and sexual and other behaviours that might lead to blood contact. HCV screening was offered to consenting participants from 2001 to 2007. Results At baseline, HCV prevalence was 1.07% in the HIV-negative and 9.39% in the HIV-positive men. HCV seropositivity was strongly associated with a history of IDU in both cohorts (OR=56.18, 95% CI 12.55 to 251.5 in HIV-negative, and OR=24.46, 95% CI 5.44 to 110.0 in HIV-positive). In the HIV-negative cohort, five men seroconverted to HCV over 4412.1 person-years of follow-up, an incidence of 0.11 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.03 to 0.26). Only one seroconverter reported IDU. Of the five, four reported sexual contact with HIV-positive men (HR=8.23, 95% CI 0.91 to 74.28), and two had an incident ulcerative sexually transmitted infection. In the HIV-positive cohort, none seroconverted over 238.1 person-years of follow-up (97.5% CI 0 to 1.54, single-sided). Conclusion HCV prevalence was almost 10 times higher in HIV-positive homosexual men. Although incident HCV infection was uncommon in both cohorts, cases of non-IDU-related transmission did occur, possibly linked to sexual contact with HIV-positive men.