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Risk for Hepatitis C: Transition and Initiation to Injecting Drug Use Among Youth in a Range of Infecting Drug User Networks(2003) Treloar, Carla; Abelson, Jeanne; Crawford, June; Kippax, Susan; Howard, John; van Beek, Ingrid; Copeland, Jan; Weatherall, Anne Maree; Madden, AnnieReportThis project, funded by NHMRC and NSW Health, aimed to investigate and report on a number of aspects of initiation and transition to injecting drug use among young people. The report focuses on issues of: • transition to injecting – what drugs were used prior to injection, what was participants’ contact with injectors; • the initiation episode – describing the factors about the occasion (what drugs were used, where injecting equipment was accessed), as well as characteristics of the initiator and their social networks; • the effect of drug most frequently used – between current stimulant and opioid injectors; • age at initiation – differences between early and late initiators; • hepatitis C status – self-reporting of positive hepatitis C serostatus; • risk practice for blood borne viruses – variables of risk, demography, and social networks are examined in determining those more likely to self-report risk practices such as sharing, borrowing or re-using injection equipment; • transitions out of injecting – we examine patterns of drug use and efforts of participants to reduce or stop drug use.
Risk for hepatitis C: Transition and initiation to injecting drug use among youth in a range of injecting drug user networks(2003) Treloar, Carla; Abelson, Jeanne; Crawford, June; Kippax, Susan; Howard, John; van Beek, Ingrid; Copeland, Jan; Weatherall, Anne Maree; Madden, AnnieReportThis project, funded by NHMRC and NSW Health, aimed to investigate and report on a number of aspects of initiation and transition to injecting drug use among young people. The report focuses on issues of transition to injecting, the initiation episode, the effect of drug most frequently used, age at initiation, hepatitis C status, risk practice for blood borne viruses, and transitions out of injecting.
Estimating Levels of HIV Testing, HIV Prevention Coverage, HIV Knowledge, and Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries(2009) Adam, Philippe; de Wit, John; Toskin, I; Mathers, Bradley; Nashkhoev, I; Lyerla, Rob; Rugg, DJournal ArticleBackground: HIV prevalence data suggest that men who have sex with men (MSM) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk of HIV The aim of this article is to present global estimates on key HIV prevention needs and responses among MSM in LMIC. Methods: Data on HIV testing, HIV prevention coverage, HIV knowledge and condom use among MSM were derived from UNGASS country progress reports submitted in 2008. Eligible country estimates were used to calculate global and regional estimates, weighted for the size of MSM populations. Results: Of 147 LMIC, 45% reported at least 1 indicator that reflects the HIV prevention needs and responses in MSM. Global weighted estimates indicate that on average 31 % of MSM in LMIC were tested for HIV; 33% were reached by HIV prevention programs; 44% had correct HIV knowledge; and 54% used condoms the last time they had anal sex with a man. Conclusions: The 2008 UNGASS country reports represent the largest harmonized data set to date of HIV prevention needs and responses among MSM in LMIC. Although reporting is incomplete and does not always conform to requirements, findings confirm that, in many LMIC, HIV prevention responses in MSM need substantial strengthening.
Estimating the level of HIV prevention coverage, knowledge and protective behavior among injecting drug users: what does the 2008 UNGASS reporting round tell us?(2009) Toskin, I; Nashkhoev, Magomed; Lyerla, Rob; Rugg, D; Mathers, Bradley; Degenhardt, Louisa; Adam, PhilippeJournal ArticleObjectives: The 2001 Declaration of Commitment from the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) set the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) as an important priority in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. This article examines data gathered to monitor the fulfillment of this commitment in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where resources to develop an effective response to HIV are limited and where injecting drug use is reported to occur in 99 (of 147) countries, home to 75% of the estimated 15.9 million global IDU population. Methods: Data relating to injecting drug use submitted by LMICs to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in the 2008 reporting round for monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS were reviewed. The quality of the data reported was assessed and country data were aggregated and compared to determine progress in HIV prevention efforts. For each indicator, the mean value weighted for the size of each country's IDU population was determined; regional estimates were also made. Results: Reporting was inconsistent between countries. Forty percent of LMIC (40/99), where injecting occurs, reported data for 1 or more of the 5 indicators pertinent to HIV prevention among IDUs. Many of the data reported were excluded from this analysis because the indicators used by countries were not consistent with those defined by UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group and could not be compared. Data from 32 of 99 countries met our inclusion criteria. These 32 countries account for approximately two-thirds (68%) of the total estimated IDU population in all LMICs. The IDU population weighted means are as follows: 36% of IDUs tested for HIV in the last year; 26% of IDUs reached with HIV prevention programs in the last year; 45% of IDUs with correct HIV prevention knowledge; 37% of IDUs used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 63% of IDUs used a clean syringe at last injection. Marked variance was observed in the data reported between different regions. Conclusions: Data from the 2008 United Nations General Assembly Special Session reporting round provide a baseline against which future progress might be measured. The data indicate a wide variation in HIV service coverage for IDUs and a wide divergence in HIV knowledge and risk behaviors among IDUs in different countries. Countries should be encouraged and assisted in monitoring and reporting on HIV prevention for IDUs.
Predictors of frequent use of amphetamine type stimulants among HIV-negative gay men in Sydney, Australia.(2007) Prestage, Garrett; Degenhardt, Louisa; Jin, F; Grulich, Andrew; Imrie, John; Kaldor, John; Kippax, SusanJournal Article