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(2012) Bunde-Birouste, Anne; Nathan, Sally; McCarroll, Brad; Kemp, Lynn; Shwe, Tun; Gran Ortega, MarciaReportAustralia accepts more than 13,000 refugee and humanitarian immigrants annually and young people account for a large overall percentage of the refugee population in New South Wales (NSW). There is evidence that refugee families are highly vulnerable to social isolation in their countries of resettlement. The difficulties of refugee settlement are well documented, including the need to learn new languages, negotiate differing cultural and societal values and address past emotional trauma. Development through sport refers to the use of sporting activities to provide opportunities for personal and community development with effects that go well beyond the sphere of physical activity and [elite] player and game development. In recent years there has been an increase in programs that use sport to foster social development and engagement, however little robust research has been performed to evaluate these efforts. Football United ® was developed from a vision that people’s love for Football (soccer) can be used to build opportunities for belonging, racial harmony and community cohesion. Football United ®’s six years of operations confirms the Crawford report findings, and highlights other effects of inequity in participation: • Gaps in equity of participation in both community and public education sector sport which can contribute to general disaffection within society, including leaving school, aggressive behaviour and unemployment as examples. • Lack of opportunity to interact across cultural groups which can translate to racism and the ensuing problems it provokes. Football United ® addresses these issues basing its foundations on the premise that structural variables and social processes act at multiple levels to impact on health and social behaviour. Results of the study underline Football United ®’s positive impact on participating young people’s sense of self, and appreciation for and engagement with peers from diverse backgrounds. Learning from interviews found unanticipated connections between participating in Football United ® and learning English, positive engagement with school, and building self confidence.
Investigating trajectories of change in psychological distress amongst patients with depression and generalised anxiety disorder treated with internet cognitive behavioural therapy(2012) Sunderland, Matthew; Wong, Nora; Hilvert-Bruce, Zita; Andrews, GavinJournal ArticleInternet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious for the treatment of anxiety and depression. The current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of internet based CBT prescribed by primary care clinicians for the treatment of depression and generalised anxiety disorder. Psychological distress data from 302 patients who completed an online CBT course for depression and 361 patients who completed an online CBT course for generalised anxiety disorder were subjected to growth mixture analysis. For both disorders psychological distress decreased across each lesson in a quadratic trend. Two classes of individuals were identified with different trajectories of change: a large group of individuals who responded well to the courses and a smaller group of individuals with a lower response. Both groups were similar with respect to sociodemographic characteristics however the low responders tended to have higher levels of symptom severity and psychological distress at baseline in comparison to the responders. For the majority of patients (75-80%) the internet CBT courses for depression and generalised anxiety disorder were effective. Further research is required to identify and effectively treat the smaller proportion of patients who did not improve during internet CBT.
(2013) Williams, Alishia; Lau, Gloria; Grisham, JessicaJournal ArticleBackground and Objectives: Thought-action fusion (TAF), or maladaptive cognitions regarding the relationship between mental events and behaviours, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As some religions promote TAF-like appraisals, it has been proposed that religiosity may play a role in the transformation of normally occurring intrusive thoughts into clinically distressing obsessions. No research, however, has experimentally investigated the mediating role of TAF on the relationship between religiosity and OC symptoms. Methods: 85 Christian, Jewish, and Atheist/Agnostic participants were exposed to an experimental thought-induction protocol and reported on their associated levels of distress, guilt, feelings of responsibility, and urge to suppress target intrusions experienced during a 5-minute monitoring period. Participants also completed measures of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology, TAF beliefs, and general psychopathology. Results: Using PROCESS and bootstrapping analyses, a test of the conditional indirect effects of religiosity on obsessive-compulsive symptoms revealed that Christianity moderated the effects of religiosity on moral TAF beliefs, which in turn mediated the relationship between religiosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Furthermore, in the Christian group, moral TAF beliefs mediated the relationship between religiosity and ratings of guilt and responsibility following the experimental protocol. Limitations: The use of university students with moderate levels of religiosity. Conclusions: Collectively the results suggest that obsessional thinking is not attributable to religion per se, but that teachings underlying certain religious doctrines may fuel TAF beliefs that are implicated in the maintenance of OCD.
The CACCC-binding protein KLF3/BKLF represses a subset of KLF1/EKLF target genes and is required for proper erythroid maturation in vivo.(2012) Funnell, Alister; Norton, Laura; Mak, Ka Sin; Burdach, John; Artuz, Crisbel; Twine, Natalie; Wilkins, Marc; Hung, TT; Perdomo, Jose; Power, Carl; Koh, P; Bell Anderson, Kim; Orkin, S; Fraser, Stuart; Perkins, Andrew; Pearson, Richard; Crossley, MerlinJournal ArticleThe CACCC-box binding protein erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF/KLF1) is a master regulator that directs the expression of many important erythroid genes. We have previously shown that EKLF drives transcription of the gene for a second KLF, basic Krüppel-like factor, or KLF3. We have now tested the in vivo role of KLF3 in erythroid cells by examining Klf3 knockout mice. KLF3-deficient adults exhibit a mild compensated anemia, including enlarged spleens, increased red pulp, and a higher percentage of erythroid progenitors, together with elevated reticulocytes and abnormal erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Impaired erythroid maturation is also observed in the fetal liver. We have found that KLF3 levels rise as erythroid cells mature to become TER119(+). Consistent with this, microarray analysis of both TER119(-) and TER119(+) erythroid populations revealed that KLF3 is most critical at the later stages of erythroid maturation and is indeed primarily a transcriptional repressor. Notably, many of the genes repressed by KLF3 are also known to be activated by EKLF. However, the majority of these are not currently recognized as erythroid-cell-specific genes. These results reveal the molecular and physiological function of KLF3, defining it as a feedback repressor that counters the activity of EKLF at selected target genes to achieve normal erythropoiesis.
(2014) Anderson, Amy; Hure, A; Forder, P; Powers, J; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Loxton, DJournal Article
(2012) Anderson, Amy; Hure, Alexis J; Powers, Jennifer; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Loxton, Deborah JJournal Article
(2018) Rasoli Pirozyan, MehdiThesisThe CD8+ T cell responses play a pivotal role in controlling viral replication during HCV infection. HCV evades the immune system by rapid viral evolution affording escape from immune selection pressure including at MHC-I restricted epitopes. However, some CTL epitopes remain conserved well past the time of establishment of chronic infection, implying additional mechanisms immune failure exists. CD8+ T cells exhibiting an exhausted phenotype have been extensively reported during the chronic stage of illness for chronic viral infections, such as HCV and HIV. Additionally, impaired differentiation and trafficking of CD8+ T cells is known to be associated with immune escape and exhaustion of CTLs, but the timing and mechanisms and expression patterns of inhibitory receptors as wells as impairments in differentiation during primary HCV infection remains unclear. HCV-specific CD8+ T cell responses against the transmitted founder virus identified via ELISpot. Immune escape was observed in the NGS data set in ~33% of all ELISpot identified epitopes. The majority of HCV-specific CD8+ responses identified via IFN- ELSPOT in chronic progressors were also characterised by a dominant population of terminally differentiated effector memory cells (CCR7lowCD45ROhighKLRG1highCD127low), and elevated expression of co-inhibitory markers (PD-1 and 2B4) targeting both conserved as well as escaped HCV variants at the peak of immune response (as early as 70-90 days post infection). However, evidence of long-term central memory subpopulations with moderate IFN-γ production was identified in a subset of responses. There was an association of viral escape with the magnitude (IFN- production) of the response, suggesting ongoing evolution of CTLs in response to prolonged viral exposure. Analysis of T-bet expression revealed that T-bet expression on HCV-specific CD8+ T cell was not associated with clearance. Immuno-phenotyping of liver showed that, liver was enriched with T cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, CXCR3, and CXCR6. Additionally, the studies revealed preferential expression of CXCR3 on HCV-specific CD8+ T cells in both chronic and acute HCV infection suggesting a key role for CXCR3 in regulation of HCV-specific CD8+ T cell trafficking to the site of infection in the liver. Taken together the studies in this thesis provide both consistent findings with more limited studies in HCV and comparable contexts in HIV, and clear contrasts with previous reports in murine LCMV models. The findings offer novel insights into our understanding of the immunopathgenesis of primary HCV and into HCV vaccine design.