Medicine & Health

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • (2008) Braidy, Nady; Guillemin, Gilles; Grant, Ross
    Journal Article
    Oxidative imbalance is a prominent feature in Alzheimer's disease and ageing. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can result in disordered cellular metabolism due to lipid peroxidation, protein-cross linking, DNA damage and the depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ is a ubiquitous pyridine nucleotide that plays an essential role in important biological reactions, from ATP production and secondary messenger signalling, to transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Chronic oxidative stress may be associated with NAD+ depletion and a subsequent decrease in metabolic regulation and cell viability. Hence, therapies targeted toward maintaining intracellular NAD+ pools may prove efficacious in the protection of age-dependent cellular damage, in general, and neurodegeneration in chronic central nervous system inflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, in particular.

  • (2009) Shen, Bojiang; Bhargav, Divya; Wei, Ai-Qun; Williams, Lisa; Diwan, Ashish
    Journal Article
    Bone morphogenetic protein-13 (BMP-13) plays an important role in skeletal development. In the light of a recent report that mutations in the BMP-13 gene are associated with spine vertebral fusion in Klippel-Feil syndrome, we hypothesized that BMP-13 signaling is crucial for regulating embryonic endochondral ossification. In this study, we found that BMP-13 inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM MSCs) in vitro. The endogenous BMP-13 gene expression in MSCs was examined under expansion conditions. The MSCs were then induced to differentiate into osteoblasts in osteo-inductive medium containing exogenous BMP-13. Gene expression was analysed by real-time PCR. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and activity, proteoglycan (PG) synthesis and matrix mineralization were assessed by cytological staining or ALP assay. Results showed that endogenous BMP-13 mRNA expression was higher than BMP-2 or -7 during MSC growth. BMP-13 supplementation strongly inhibited matrix mineralization and ALP activity of osteogenic differentiated MSCs, yet increased PG synthesis under the same conditions. In conclusion, BMP-13 inhibited osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, implying that functional mutations or deficiency of BMP-13 may allow excess bone formation. Our finding provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms and the therapeutic potential of BMP-13 in restricting pathological bone formation.

  • (2005) Stephenson, Niamh; Webb, Cammi; Carman, Marina
    Report
    This monograph outlines some contemporary explorations of the promises and challenges of approaching HIV through the framework of human rights. It includes an introduction and six chapters: • A public health dilemma: the vexed question of Voluntary Counselling and Testing (by Susan Kippax) • HIV testing and human rights in the era of scaling up access to treatments (by David Buchanan) • Ethical issues in trials of HIV prevention (by John Kaldor and Iona Millwood) • Power, prejudice and prevention: can research advance social justice? (by Bridge Haire) • Re-thinking human rights and the HIV epidemic: a reflection on power and goodness (by Elizabeth Reid) • HIV and human rights: through an East African prism (Michael Burke)