Medicine & Health

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • (2012) Bunde-Birouste, Anne; Nathan, Sally; McCarroll, Brad; Kemp, Lynn; Shwe, Tun; Gran Ortega, Marcia
    Report
    Australia accepts more than 13,000 refugee and humanitarian immigrants annually and young people account for a large overall percentage of the refugee population in New South Wales (NSW). There is evidence that refugee families are highly vulnerable to social isolation in their countries of resettlement. The difficulties of refugee settlement are well documented, including the need to learn new languages, negotiate differing cultural and societal values and address past emotional trauma. Development through sport refers to the use of sporting activities to provide opportunities for personal and community development with effects that go well beyond the sphere of physical activity and [elite] player and game development. In recent years there has been an increase in programs that use sport to foster social development and engagement, however little robust research has been performed to evaluate these efforts. Football United ® was developed from a vision that people’s love for Football (soccer) can be used to build opportunities for belonging, racial harmony and community cohesion. Football United ®’s six years of operations confirms the Crawford report findings, and highlights other effects of inequity in participation: • Gaps in equity of participation in both community and public education sector sport which can contribute to general disaffection within society, including leaving school, aggressive behaviour and unemployment as examples. • Lack of opportunity to interact across cultural groups which can translate to racism and the ensuing problems it provokes. Football United ® addresses these issues basing its foundations on the premise that structural variables and social processes act at multiple levels to impact on health and social behaviour. Results of the study underline Football United ®’s positive impact on participating young people’s sense of self, and appreciation for and engagement with peers from diverse backgrounds. Learning from interviews found unanticipated connections between participating in Football United ® and learning English, positive engagement with school, and building self confidence.

  • (2012) Sunderland, Matthew; Wong, Nora; Hilvert-Bruce, Zita; Andrews, Gavin
    Journal Article
    Internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is efficacious for the treatment of anxiety and depression. The current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of internet based CBT prescribed by primary care clinicians for the treatment of depression and generalised anxiety disorder. Psychological distress data from 302 patients who completed an online CBT course for depression and 361 patients who completed an online CBT course for generalised anxiety disorder were subjected to growth mixture analysis. For both disorders psychological distress decreased across each lesson in a quadratic trend. Two classes of individuals were identified with different trajectories of change: a large group of individuals who responded well to the courses and a smaller group of individuals with a lower response. Both groups were similar with respect to sociodemographic characteristics however the low responders tended to have higher levels of symptom severity and psychological distress at baseline in comparison to the responders. For the majority of patients (75-80%) the internet CBT courses for depression and generalised anxiety disorder were effective. Further research is required to identify and effectively treat the smaller proportion of patients who did not improve during internet CBT.

  • (2013) Williams, Alishia; Lau, Gloria; Grisham, Jessica
    Journal Article
    Background and Objectives: Thought-action fusion (TAF), or maladaptive cognitions regarding the relationship between mental events and behaviours, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As some religions promote TAF-like appraisals, it has been proposed that religiosity may play a role in the transformation of normally occurring intrusive thoughts into clinically distressing obsessions. No research, however, has experimentally investigated the mediating role of TAF on the relationship between religiosity and OC symptoms. Methods: 85 Christian, Jewish, and Atheist/Agnostic participants were exposed to an experimental thought-induction protocol and reported on their associated levels of distress, guilt, feelings of responsibility, and urge to suppress target intrusions experienced during a 5-minute monitoring period. Participants also completed measures of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology, TAF beliefs, and general psychopathology. Results: Using PROCESS and bootstrapping analyses, a test of the conditional indirect effects of religiosity on obsessive-compulsive symptoms revealed that Christianity moderated the effects of religiosity on moral TAF beliefs, which in turn mediated the relationship between religiosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Furthermore, in the Christian group, moral TAF beliefs mediated the relationship between religiosity and ratings of guilt and responsibility following the experimental protocol. Limitations: The use of university students with moderate levels of religiosity. Conclusions: Collectively the results suggest that obsessional thinking is not attributable to religion per se, but that teachings underlying certain religious doctrines may fuel TAF beliefs that are implicated in the maintenance of OCD.

  • (2012) Funnell, Alister; Norton, Laura; Mak, Ka Sin; Burdach, John; Artuz, Crisbel; Twine, Natalie; Wilkins, Marc; Hung, TT; Perdomo, Jose; Power, Carl; Koh, P; Bell Anderson, Kim; Orkin, S; Fraser, Stuart; Perkins, Andrew; Pearson, Richard; Crossley, Merlin
    Journal Article
    The CACCC-box binding protein erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF/KLF1) is a master regulator that directs the expression of many important erythroid genes. We have previously shown that EKLF drives transcription of the gene for a second KLF, basic Krüppel-like factor, or KLF3. We have now tested the in vivo role of KLF3 in erythroid cells by examining Klf3 knockout mice. KLF3-deficient adults exhibit a mild compensated anemia, including enlarged spleens, increased red pulp, and a higher percentage of erythroid progenitors, together with elevated reticulocytes and abnormal erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Impaired erythroid maturation is also observed in the fetal liver. We have found that KLF3 levels rise as erythroid cells mature to become TER119(+). Consistent with this, microarray analysis of both TER119(-) and TER119(+) erythroid populations revealed that KLF3 is most critical at the later stages of erythroid maturation and is indeed primarily a transcriptional repressor. Notably, many of the genes repressed by KLF3 are also known to be activated by EKLF. However, the majority of these are not currently recognized as erythroid-cell-specific genes. These results reveal the molecular and physiological function of KLF3, defining it as a feedback repressor that counters the activity of EKLF at selected target genes to achieve normal erythropoiesis.

  • (2014) Anderson, Amy; Hure, A; Forder, P; Powers, J; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Loxton, D
    Journal Article

  • (2012) Anderson, Amy; Hure, Alexis J; Powers, Jennifer; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Loxton, Deborah J
    Journal Article

  • (2010) Short, Alison; Jackson, Wanda; Nugus, Peter
    Journal Article
    Purpose: The proposed CoPER project (Community of Practice for Engaging in Research) responds to a need for increased research capacity in a clinical setting. We put forward an argument and a design for a prospective action research project to extend research capacity via an integrated academic and practitioner community of practice in an Emergency Department (ED). Procedures: This paper explores the research needs of clinicians, articulates the concept of community of practice in light of these needs, and outlines the rationale for considering communities of practice as a potential contributor to building research capacity in a clinical setting. Findings: A potential methodology is suggested to test the linkage between research needs, the concept of a community of practice model in a clinical setting, and the contribution of such a model to building research capacity in a clinical setting via the CoPER framework. Conclusions: Combined data from this proposed mixed method action research (survey, focus groups, interviews, observation) are expected to enable the production of a set of facilitators and enablers with a view to building a community of research practice which make the case study transferable to other clinical and non-clinical work settings.

  • (2014) Mills, Katherine; Ewer, Phillipa; Dore, Glenys; Teesson, Maree; Baker, Amanda; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Sannibale, Claudia
    Journal Article
    Background: Traumaexposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common among clients of substance use services. Existing treatments for these co-occurring conditions tend to be lengthy, treatment retention is relatively poor, and they require extensive training and clinical supervision. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary examination of the feasibility and acceptability of a brief intervention for PTSD symptoms among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Methods: An uncontrolled open-label pilot study was conducted among 29 inpatients of a medicated detoxification unit in Sydney, Australia. All participants completed a baseline interview followed by the brief intervention. The intervention consists of a single, one-hourmanualised session providing psychoeducation pertaining to common trauma reactions and symptom management. PTSD and substance use outcomes were assessed at 1-week, 1-month and 3-month post-intervention. Results: PTSD symptom severity (assessed using the Clinicians Administered PTSD Scale) decreased significantly from baseline to 1-week follow up (β −10.87, 95%CI: −19.75 to −1.99) and again between the 1-week and 3-month follow-ups (β −15.38, 95%CI: −23.20 to −7.57). Despite these reductions, the majority of participants continued to meet criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD and there was no change in participants' negative post-traumatic cognitions. Participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. Conclusions: Brief psychoeducation for traumatised clients attending substance use services appears to be feasible, acceptable, and may be of some benefit in reducing PTSD symptoms. However, participants continued to experience symptoms at severe levels; thus, brief intervention may best be conceptualised as a “stepping stone†to further trauma treatment.