Medicine & Health

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • (2012) Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Andrews, Gavin
    Journal Article
    Diagnostic instruments must be relatively free from respondent burden and cost effective to administer whilst remaining faithful to the psychiatric nomenclature. It seems logical to develop short form alternatives to rather lengthy and complicated diagnostic interviews to facilitate large scale data collection. The current study examines one method, signal detection theory, for developing a short form interview based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. The method was able to retain the smallest number of items to predict a lifetime and 30 day DSM-IV diagnosis for ten disorders. Concordance analyses between the full form and the short form modules, demonstrated an excellent level of agreement in the whole sample and various subsamples of the Australian population as well as in an international comparison sample of the U.S. population. The good concordance between the long form and the short form demonstrates the ability of signal detection theory to assist in the development of valid short forms, which could replace lengthy diagnostic interviews when the aim is to reduce respondent burden and overall research costs.

  • (2013) Marel, Christina; Mills, Katherine; Darke, Shane; Ross, Joanne; Slade, Tim; Burns, Lucy; Teesson, Maree
    Journal Article
    Background The link between heroin use and crime has been well established; however, there has been little opportunity to examine this relationship longitudinally. This study examines the relationship between static and dynamic predictors of criminal involvement, and the degree to which changes in dynamic risk factors moderate the risk of criminal involvement over time. Method Data was collected as part of the Australian Treatment Outcome Study, a 3-year longitudinal study of 615 people with heroin dependence conducted in Sydney, Australia. Past-month criminal involvement (property crime, drug dealing, fraud, violent crime), demographic, drug use and mental health characteristics were assessed at each interview. Results Criminal involvement was consistently and independently predicted by lack of wage/salary as a main source of income, (OR 2.17), meeting diagnostic criteria for anti-social personality disorder (OR 1.91) and major depression (OR 1.41), screening positive for borderline personality disorder (OR 1.47), male sex (OR 1.44), a criminal history (OR 1.33), greater severity of dependence (OR 1.21), more extensive heroin use (OR 1.09), and younger age (OR 0.96) over the 3-year period. Conclusions These findings provide strong evidence of the robust nature of the association between more extensive heroin use, severity of dependence, the co-occurrence of mental health conditions, and an individual’s capacity for employment, and criminal involvement. Interventions aimed at increasing an individual’s employability and improving mental health in particular, may reduce the risk of criminal involvement among people with heroin dependence.

  • (2012) Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Back, Sudie; Brady, Kathleen; Baker, Amanda; Hopwood, Sally; Sannibale, Claudia; Barrett, Emma; Merz, Sabine; Rosenfeld, Julia; Ewer, Philippa
    Journal Article
    Context: There is concern that exposure therapy, an evidence-based cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be inappropriate for patients with co-occurring substance dependence (SD). Objective: To determine whether an integrated treatment for PTSD and SD, Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE), can achieve greater reductions in PTSD and SD symptom severity compared to treatment as usual (TAU) for SD. Design, Setting, and Patients: A randomized controlled trial of 103 participants who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for both PTSD and SD. Participants were recruited from 2007-2009 in Sydney, Australia, and randomized to one of two conditions. The treatment group received COPE plus TAU (COPE+TAU; n=55) and the control group received TAU alone (n=48). Outcomes were assessed at 9-months post-baseline, and interim measures collected at 6-weeks and 3-months post-baseline. Interventions: COPE consists of 13 individual 90-minute sessions (i.e., 19.5 hours) with a clinical psychologist. It represents an integration of existing evidence based manualized cognitive behavioral treatments for PTSD and SD, comprising psychoeducation, motivational enhancement, and cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD and SD, including imaginal and in vivo exposure. Main outcome measures: Change in PTSD symptom severity as measured by the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS; scale range 0-240), and change in severity of SD as measured by the number of dependence criteria met according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI; range 0-7), from baseline to 9-month follow-up. A change of 15 points on the CAPS scale and 1 dependence criteria on the CIDI were considered to be clinically significant. Results: From baseline to 9-month follow-up, significant reductions in PTSD symptom severity were found for both the treatment (mean difference -38.24, 95%CI: -47.93 - -28.54) and control group (mean difference -22.14, 95%CI: -30.33 - -13.95), however, the treatment group demonstrated a significantly greater reduction in PTSD symptom severity compared to the control group (mean difference -16.09, 95%CI: -29.00 to -3.19). No significant between group difference was found in relation to improvement in severity of SD (0.43 v 0.52; IRR 0.85, 95%CI: 0.60 - 1.21), nor were there any significant between group differences in relation to changes in substance use, depression or anxiety. Conclusions: Among patients with PTSD and SD, the combined use of COPE+TAU, compared with TAU alone, resulted in improvement in PTSD symptom severity without an increase in severity of SD. Trial registration: Registration number ISRCTN12908171; URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN12908171/mills

  • (2012) Handley, Tonelle; Inder, Kerry; Kelly, Brian; Lewin, Terry; Fitzgerald, Michael; Kay-Lambkin, Frances
    Journal Article

  • (2013) Livingston, Michael; Wilkinson, Claire
    Journal Article

  • (2014) Law, Jenaleen; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances
    Journal Article

  • (2014) Mills, Katherine; Ewer, Phillipa; Dore, Glenys; Teesson, Maree; Baker, Amanda; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Sannibale, Claudia
    Journal Article
    Background: Traumaexposure and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common among clients of substance use services. Existing treatments for these co-occurring conditions tend to be lengthy, treatment retention is relatively poor, and they require extensive training and clinical supervision. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary examination of the feasibility and acceptability of a brief intervention for PTSD symptoms among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Methods: An uncontrolled open-label pilot study was conducted among 29 inpatients of a medicated detoxification unit in Sydney, Australia. All participants completed a baseline interview followed by the brief intervention. The intervention consists of a single, one-hourmanualised session providing psychoeducation pertaining to common trauma reactions and symptom management. PTSD and substance use outcomes were assessed at 1-week, 1-month and 3-month post-intervention. Results: PTSD symptom severity (assessed using the Clinicians Administered PTSD Scale) decreased significantly from baseline to 1-week follow up (β −10.87, 95%CI: −19.75 to −1.99) and again between the 1-week and 3-month follow-ups (β −15.38, 95%CI: −23.20 to −7.57). Despite these reductions, the majority of participants continued to meet criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD and there was no change in participants' negative post-traumatic cognitions. Participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. Conclusions: Brief psychoeducation for traumatised clients attending substance use services appears to be feasible, acceptable, and may be of some benefit in reducing PTSD symptoms. However, participants continued to experience symptoms at severe levels; thus, brief intervention may best be conceptualised as a “stepping stone†to further trauma treatment.

  • (2014) Handley, Tonelle; Perkins, David; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Lewin, Terry; Kelly, Brian
    Journal Article
    Objectives: Older adults are the fastest growing age group in Australia, necessitating an increase in appropriate mental health services in the coming years. While Internet-delivered mental health treatments have been established as acceptable and efficacious among younger samples, little research has explored whether they would be similarly useful in older populations. Methods: The participants were part of the Australian Rural Mental Health study, which explores mental health and well-being in residents of non-metropolitan New South Wales. A postal survey was used to assess knowledge of and intentions to use Internet-delivered mental health treatments. Demographics, mental health, and frequency of Internet use were also measured. Results: The survey was completed by 950 adults aged 50–93. The sample was largely unfamiliar with Internet mental health services, with 75% reporting that they had never heard of them and a further 20% not knowing any details of what they involved. Intentions to use these services were also low, at 13.5%; however, this increased with level of familiarity. Respondents with higher psychological distress, higher education, and more frequent Internet use were significantly more likely to consider using Internet treatments. Conclusions: Among older adults, overall awareness of Internet-delivered mental health treatments appears to be limited; however, higher familiarity contributes to higher intentions to use these treatments. Importantly, respondents with higher distress and greater computer literacy were more likely to consider mental health treatments delivered via the Internet. Future research exploring strategies to increase the promotion of these services to older samples may further improve their perceptions and use.

  • (2014) Livingston, Michael
    Journal Article