Medicine & Health
Medicine & Health
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(1998) Wool, R; Kusefoglu, S; Khot, S; Zhao, R; Palmese, Gaetano; Boyd, Andrew; Fisher, Keith; Bandyopadhyay, Srikanta; Williams, J; Wang, ChaoyuanConference Paper
The feasibility of women at high risk for breast cancer participating in chemoprevention trials: An attitudinal study(2004) Muir, Alison; Meiser, Bettina; Tucker, Monica; Andrews, Leslie; Tucker, Katherine; Friedlander, MichaelJournal ArticleThere is significant interest in developing chemoprevention trials for women at high risk for breast cancer, yet it is not clear how acceptable these strategies are. Results of clinical trials with tamoxifen have demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer in women at increased risk, but rates of participation in such trials have been lower than expected. No previous Studies have assessed the attitudes of high-risk women toward participating in chemoprevention trials using drugs causing ovarian Suppression. All women who had attended a large familial cancer clinic in Sydney, New South Wales, between 1994 and 2000 who were eligible for the Raloxifene and Zoladex Research Study being piloted in the United Kingdom at the time were approached. Telephone interviews were conducted with the 35 high-risk women willing to participate in this study. Almost half the women Surveyed expressed willingness to participate in a randomized trial, and slightly fewer women considered participating in a nonrandomized trial. The women who Would consider participating were younger than those who would not. The most frequently mentioned reasons for interest In participating in trials were to aid research, help others, and learn more, which indicates that altruism may have played a significant part in the women`s willingness to participate. Most women interviewed were participating in risk reduction and early detection strategies and expressed high interest in research screening tests. Given the interest in randomized trials and the fact that women at high risk for breast cancer consider the side effects as mainly acceptable, undertaking Such trials may be worthwhile.
(2011) Riazi, Abbas; Dain, Stephen; Boon, Mei-Ying; Bridge, CatherineJournal ArticleAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of visual impairment and blindness among people aged over 60 years in developed countries. Functional vision may be assessed using ‘activity of daily living (ADL) instruments, which assess independent living skills. AMD also affects the quality of life and impedes healthy independent ageing. This case study highlights strategies that may assist with improving functional outcomes in practical activities in individuals with similar patterns of visual loss. Some instruments of visual function may not take into account the effects of non-visual coping strategies on the ability to function, resulting in underestimates of functionality. Therefore, information from self-reported visual impairment and individual coping strategies is essential to assess functionality in performing daily living activities.
Evidence-based narratives to reconcile academic disciplines with the scholarship of teaching and learning(2009) Quinnell, Rosanne; Russell, Carol; Thompson, Rachel; Nancy, Marshall; Cowley, JillConference PaperA raft of models and definitions of SoTL exist and the best appear to transcend disciplinary contexts, and are sufficiently robust for academics to measure scholarly practices. Critical engagement with the scholarly literature is necessary for academics to gain a realistic view of where their work practices are situated within the scholarly domain. Because academic staff are disciplinary experts they are best placed to comment on whether the models of scholarship describe the scholarship of learning and teaching within the context of their own disciplines as well as within the confines of the Australian higher education sector. This paper pushes the existing debates on reconciling what evidence of scholarship in the disciplines actually is and what is considered valid, and in doing so uncovers why the process of reconciliation, between current practice and supporting evidence, remains elusive. Higher education academics need to identify and reconcile tacit disciplinary knowledge with their SoTL approach in order to unpack the complexity and value of their practices. Enabling academic staff to annotate their activities, roles and accomplishments and then map these items onto the various models of scholarship will enrich the status of scholarship of teaching and learning within the higher education sector.
Paradigms, clusters and traditions on urban health - Articulating diverse ontological perspectives to urban health research and policymaking(2023) Kim, JinheeThesisThe development of knowledge and policy for improving health through urban planning involves multiple disciplines and sectors. Achieving effective policymaking and knowledge production requires transdisciplinary collaboration, which necessitates a willingness among participants to collaborate in areas outside their respective fields. To establish such collaborations, it is crucial to identify and acknowledge the ontological perspectives of the actors involved. This thesis aims to identify and articulate diverse ontological perspectives on urban health and their implications for advancing transdisciplinary approaches to urban health. The concept of paradigms is applied to identify four urban health paradigms: the ‘medical-industrial city,’ ‘urban health science,’ ‘healthy built environment,’ and ‘health social movement’ paradigms. A meta-narrative review, guided by a bibliometric co-citation network analysis, identifies five urban health research traditions: sustainable urban development, urban ecosystem services, urban resilience, healthy urban planning, and urban green spaces. The four urban health paradigms and five urban health research traditions are employed to analyse the presentation of urban health policy ideas in the planning of the Western Parkland City in Greater Sydney, Australia. The analysis reveals that the key urban health policy ideas are grounded in different sets of urban health paradigms and are involved with different types of urban health research traditions. This finding highlights the need for transdisciplinary approaches to policymaking and indicates that effective urban health policy solutions require collaboration among actors with diverse perspectives. In conclusion, this thesis emphasises the importance of recognising and reflecting on diverse ontological perspectives on urban health to produce and interpret transdisciplinary knowledge for the goal of improving health by transforming urban systems. Scholars, practitioners, and policymakers must seek coherence by understanding the similarities and differences in their approaches to urban health to create an opportunity for coherence in understanding knowledge generated from different paradigms.
Geo-design in planning and designing for bicycling: an evidence-based approach for collaborative bicycling planning(2023) Zare, ParisaThesisIn recent times cities have increasingly promoted bicycling as part of their strategy to develop a more sustainable transportation system. To increase the number of bike riders, more bicycling infrastructure should be developed in urban areas. The infrastructure should provide a safe and comfortable environment for bicycling. To this end, bicycling should be prioritised within a city's urban and transportation planning. However, in many cities, bicycling gets little attention in urban plans and strategies. One barrier to enhanced bicycling, in many cities around the world, is the organisational complexity, under several tiers of government, of planning and implementing bicycling infrastructure. Such is the case in Australia, where local and state government departments have often distinct policies and strategies for planning bicycling infrastructure that cause problems in project coordination. In addition, decisions about where to prioritise investment in bicycling infrastructure need to be supported with valid and comprehensive evidence. Planning Support Systems (PSS) are geo-information tools that have been created to provide this evidence and support specific urban planning tasks such as bicycling planning. However, improving city bicycling isn't solely reliant on data-driven techniques and new technologies; it also demands planners' adoption of these methods while working collaboratively with other stakeholders. The emerging field of Planning Support Science highlights the significance of research-practice collaboration to achieve shared goals and provide valuable support to those in the field. Geo-design is an approach that enables such collaboration using geo-information tools to support the planning process in a collaborative environment. The geo-design framework enhances the planning approach by providing key stakeholders with data-driven tools ranging from sketch planning to advanced simulation and impact assessment. With these tools, geo-design can be applied to collaboratively construct and evaluate multiple future bike infrastructure scenarios. Therefore, the overarching research question of this study is: ‘How can a geo-design framework facilitate planning for bicycling, and what data-driven methods and tools effectively support such a framework?’. A geo-design framework was developed and evaluated using an experiential case study approach in the Greater Sydney region, specifically focusing on Penrith City (Western Sydney). The main contributions of this research lie in its investigation of the current state of using data-driven approaches to support bicycle planning, and its development, implementation and iterative testing of geo-design incorporating a data-driven support tool based on Agent-Based Modelling (ABM) techniques. The research involved expert participants (transport planners and engineers, urban designers, and academics) from across Sydney, including people from both State and Local Government Authorities and other key stakeholders in bicycling planning. The findings of this research provide a novel framework for planners that can guide collaborative planning for better bicycling infrastructure. In addition, the application of data-driven tools, such as ABM for simulation of bicyclists behaviours, augments the evidence base and improves decision-making. Overall, this study has shown that the proposed geo-design framework and developed data-driven tools can improve planning for bicycling by facilitating collaboration among decision-makers and stakeholders.