Medicine & Health

Publication Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
  • (2008) Vagholkar, Sanjyot; Ng, Judy; Chan, Raymond; Bunker, Jeremy; Zwar, N
    Journal Article
    Objective: In 2002, New South Wales (NSW) Health introduced an updated policy for occupational screening and vaccination against infectious diseases. This study describes healthcare worker (HCW) immunity to hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella based on serological screening, following introduction of this policy. Methods: HCW screening serology performed at two healthcare facilities in south western Sydney (Bankstown and Fairfield) was extracted for the period September 2003 to September 2005. Immunity to hepatitis B, MMR and varicella was quantitated and cross-tabulated against age, sex and staff risk category. Results: A total of 1,320 HCWs were screened. Almost two thirds were immune to hepatitis B while immunity to MMR and varicella ranged from 88% to 94%. Age stratification showed lower levels of measles immunity in those born after 1965. Conclusions: Despite availability of vaccination for over two decades, a significant proportion of HCWs at these two facilities were non-immune to hepatitis B. This is of concern for those non-immune staff involved in direct clinical care, who are at risk of blood and body fluid exposures. The small group of HCWs non-immune to MMR and varicella pose a risk to themselves and others in the event of an outbreak. Implications: There is a need for improved implementation of the occupational screening and vaccination policy, including better education of HCWs about the risks of non-immunity to vaccine preventable diseases. The revised 2007 NSW Health policy may assist this process and will need evaluation to determine whether HCW immunity improves in the coming years.

  • (2008) Zablotska, Iryna; Prestage, Garrett; Frankland, Andrew; Chong, Stanley; Sutherland, Rob; Corrigan, Nick; Honnor, Geoff; Kippax, Susan
    Report
    Gay Community Periodic Surveys surveys are regularly conducted in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra, Adelaide and Perth to monitor changes in sexual and other risk practices over time among Australian gay men who are gay community attached, recruited from gay sex-on-premises venues, social sites and clinics.

  • (2008) Davidson, Robert; Spooner, Catherine; Fisher, Karen; Newton, BJ; Dadich, Ann; Smyth, Ciara; Tudball, Jacqueline; Flaxman, Saul
    Report

  • (2008) Fisher, Karen; Tudball, Jacqueline; Redmond, Gerard
    Report

  • (2008) McDermott, Shannon; Spooner, Catherine
    Report

  • (2008) Dain, Stephen; Floyd, Richard; Elliott, Robert
    Journal Article
    The hypotheses of a visual basis to reading disabilities in some children have centered around deficits in the visual processes displaying more transient reponses to stimuli although hyperactivity in the visual processes displaying sustained reponses to stimuli has also been proposed as a mechanism. In addition, there is clear evidence that colored lenses and/or colored overlays and/or colored backgrounds can influence performance in reading and/or may assist in providing comfortable vision for reading and, as a consequence, the ability to maintain reading for longer. As a consequence, it is surprising that the color vision of poor readers is relatively little studied. We assessed luminance increment thresholds and equi-luminous red-green and blue-yellow increment thresholds using a computer based test in central vision and at 10 degrees nasally employing the paradigm pioneered by King-Smith. We examined 35 poor readers (based on the Neale Analysis of Reading) and compared their performance with 35 normal readers...

  • (2008) Cranney, Jacquelyn; Jones, Gwyn; Morris, Suzanne; Starfield, Sue; Martire, Kristy; Newell, Benjamin; Wong, Kwan
    Conference Paper

  • (2009) Adam, Philippe; de Wit, John; Toskin, I; Mathers, Bradley; Nashkhoev, I; Lyerla, Rob; Rugg, D
    Journal Article
    Background: HIV prevalence data suggest that men who have sex with men (MSM) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk of HIV The aim of this article is to present global estimates on key HIV prevention needs and responses among MSM in LMIC. Methods: Data on HIV testing, HIV prevention coverage, HIV knowledge and condom use among MSM were derived from UNGASS country progress reports submitted in 2008. Eligible country estimates were used to calculate global and regional estimates, weighted for the size of MSM populations. Results: Of 147 LMIC, 45% reported at least 1 indicator that reflects the HIV prevention needs and responses in MSM. Global weighted estimates indicate that on average 31 % of MSM in LMIC were tested for HIV; 33% were reached by HIV prevention programs; 44% had correct HIV knowledge; and 54% used condoms the last time they had anal sex with a man. Conclusions: The 2008 UNGASS country reports represent the largest harmonized data set to date of HIV prevention needs and responses among MSM in LMIC. Although reporting is incomplete and does not always conform to requirements, findings confirm that, in many LMIC, HIV prevention responses in MSM need substantial strengthening.

  • (2009) Zablotska, I; Imrie, John; Prestage, Garrett; Crawford, June; Rawstorne, Patrick; Grulich, Andrew; Jin, Feng Yi; Kippax, Susan
    Journal Article
    We explored seroguessing (serosorting based on the assumption of HIV seroconcordance) and casual unprotected anal intercourse (UAIC) associated with seroguessing. The ongoing Positive Health and Health in Men cohorts, Australia, provided data for trends in seroconcordant UAIC and HIV disclosure to sex partners. In event-level analyses, we used log-binomial regression adjusted for within-individual correlation and estimated prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between the knowledge of a casual partner`s seroconcordance and UAIC. UAIC and HIV disclosure significantly increased during 2001-2006. HIV-positive men knew partners were seroconcordant in 54% and assumed it in 13% of sex encounters (42 and 17% among HIV-negative men). Among HIV-positive men, the likelihood of UAIC was higher when a partner`s status was known (Adjusted PRR = 5.17, 95% CI: 3.82-7.01) and assumed seroconcordant because of seroguessing (Adjusted PRR = 3.70, 95% CI: 2.56-5.35) compared with unknown. Among HIV-negative men, the likelihood of UAIC was also higher when a partner`s status was known (Adjusted PRR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.58-2.24) and assumed seroconcordant (Adjusted PRR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.72-2.62) compared with unknown. As levels of UAIC remain high, seroguessing increasingly exposes gay men to the risk of HIV infection. Because both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men often seroguess, education and prevention programs should address the fact that HIV-negative men who engage in UAI due to this practice may be at high risk of HIV infection. HIV prevention should take into account these contemporary changes in behaviors, especially among HIV-negative gay men.

  • (2009) Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Donovan, Basil; Imrie, John; Kippax, Susan; Kaldor, John; Grulich, Andrew; Templeton, David; Jin, Feng Yi
    Journal Article
    Objective: To assess circumcision status as a risk factor for HIV seroconversion in homosexual men. Design, setting and participants: The Health in Men (HIM) study was a prospective cohort of homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. HIV-negative men (n = 1426) were recruited primarily from community-based sources between 2001 and 2004 and followed to mid-2007. Participants underwent annual HIV testing, and detailed information on sexual risk behaviour was collected every 6 months. Main outcome measure: HIV incidence in circumcised compared with uncircumcised participants, stratified by whether or not men predominantly practised the insertive role in anal intercourse. Results: There were 53 HIV seroconversions during follow-up; an incidence of 0.78 per 100 person-years. On multivariate analysis controlling for behavioural risk factors, being circumcised was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in risk of HIV seroconversion [hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-1.45, P = 0.424]. Among one-third of study participants who reported a preference for the insertive role in anal intercourse, being circumcised was associated with a significant reduction in HIV incidence after controlling for age and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (hazard ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.80, P = 0.041). Those who reported a preference for the insertive role overwhelmingly practised insertive rather than receptive UAI. Conclusions: Overall, circumcision did not significantly reduce the risk of HIV infection in the HIM cohort. However, it was associated with a significant reduction in HIV incidence among those participants who reported a preference for the insertive role in anal intercourse. Circumcision may have a role as an HIV prevention intervention in this subset of homosexual men.